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Yemen

 
Flag of Yemen
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Coordinates:
15.00 N  48.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Yemen Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border.
   Geography    Yemen Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
15 00 N, 48 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 527,970 sq km
land: 527,970 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,746 km
border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,906 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb 3,760 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.91%
permanent crops: 0.25%
other: 96.84% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
5,500 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
sandstorms and dust storms in summer
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
very limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes
   People    Yemen Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21,456,188 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 46.4% (male 5,067,762/female 4,881,333)
15-64 years: 51% (male 5,568,078/female 5,375,263)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 275,878/female 287,874) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16.6 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.46% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
42.89 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.3 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 59.88 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 64.55 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 54.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 62.12 years
male: 60.23 years
female: 64.11 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.58 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Yemeni(s)
adjective: Yemeni
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim including Shaf'i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shi'a), small numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Arabic
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 50.2%
male: 70.5%
female: 30% (2003 est.)
   Government    Yemen Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Yemen
conventional short form: Yemen
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form: Al Yaman
former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Sanaa
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
19 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan, Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, 'Amran, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Sa'dah, San'a', Shabwah, Ta'izz
note: for electoral and administrative purposes, the capital city of Sanaa is treated as an additional governorate
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen had become independent in November of 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Unification Day, 22 May (1990)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Abd al-Qadir BA JAMAL; Deputy Prime Ministers Rashid Muhammad al-ALAMI, Alawi Salah al-SALAMI, Ahmad Muhammad Abdallah al-SUFAN
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; recently extended from a five-year term by constitutional amendment); election last held 23 September 1999 (next to be held September 2006); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 96.3%, Najib Qahtan AL-SHABI 3.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
a new constitutional amendment ratified on 20 February 2001 created a bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and a House of Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held 27 April 2003 (next to be held in April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC 228, Islah 47, YSP 7, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party 2, independents 14
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
there are more than 12 political parties active in Yemen, some of the more prominent are: General People's Congress or GPC [President Ali Abdallah SALIH]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdal Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; National Arab Socialist Ba'th Party [Dr. Qasim SALAM]; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MUQBIL]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Abd al-Wahab Abdallah al-HAJRI
chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760
FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas C. KRAJESKI
embassy: Sa'awan Street, Sanaa
mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266
FAX: [967] (1) 303-182
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars, and of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription), in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band
   Economy    Yemen Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Yemen, one of the poorest countries in the Arab world, has reported meager growth since 2000. Its economic fortunes depend mostly on oil. Oil revenues increased in 2005 due to higher prices. Yemen was on an IMF-supported structural adjustment program designed to modernize and streamline the economy, which led to substantial foreign debt relief and restructuring. However, government dedication to the program waned in 2001 for political reasons. Yemen is struggling to control excessive spending and rampant corruption. The people have grown increasingly upset over the economic situation. In July 2005, a reduction in fuel subsidies sparked riots; over 20 Yemenis were killed and hundreds were injured.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$19.37 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$14.34 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.4% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 13.5%
industry: 47.2%
services: 39.3% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.83 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
35% (2003 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
45.2% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 25.9% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
33.4 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.8% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $5.616 billion
expenditures: $5.719 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement; commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.848 billion kWh (2003 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.827 billion kWh (2003 est.)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
387,500 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
80,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
370,300 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.37 billion bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
478.6 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.224 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.387 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 37.3%, Chile 19.6%, Thailand 12.8%, Japan 5.6%, US 4.2% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.19 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UAE 13.4%, Saudi Arabia 10.6%, China 9%, Kuwait 4.6%, India 4.6%, Turkey 4.5%, Russia 4.2% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.143 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.347 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$2.3 billion (2003-07 disbursements)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Yemeni rial (YER)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Yemeni rials per US dollar - 192.67 (2005), 184.78 (2004), 183.45 (2003), 175.63 (2002), 168.67 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Yemen Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
798,100 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.072 million (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network
domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, and GSM cellular mobile telephone systems
international: country code - 967; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
7 (plus several low-power repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ye
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
166 (2004)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
220,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Yemen Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
45 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 4 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 88 km; oil 1,174 km (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 65,144 km
paved: 10,117 km
unpaved: 55,027 km - includes 44,000 km of tracks and trails (2004)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5 ships (1000 GRT or over) 19,920 GRT/26,277 DWT
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
registered in other countries: 5 (Bolivia 1, Cambodia 2, North Korea 1, Panama 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Aden, Nishtun
   Military    Yemen Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (includes Special Forces), Naval Forces and Coastal Defenses (includes Marines), Air Force (includes Air Defense Forces), Republican Guard (2002)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
in May 2001, Yemen's National Defense Council abolished compulsory military service and authorized a voluntary program for military service (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 4,058,223
females age 18-49: 3,868,112 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 2,790,705
females age 18-49: 2,792,406 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 236,517
females age 18-49: 230,641 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$992.2 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.4% (2005 est.)
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
a Coast Guard was established in 2002
   Transnational Issues    Yemen Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Yemen protests Eritrea fishing around the Hanish Islands awarded to Yemen by the ICJ in 1999; Saudi Arabia still maintains the concrete-filled pipe as a security barrier along sections of the border with Yemen in 2004 to stem illegal cross-border activities; Yemen protests Saudi erection of a concrete-filled pipe as a security barrier in 2004 to stem illegal cross-border activities in sections of the boundary
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 63,511 (Somalia) (2005)

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook