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Uruguay

 
Flag of Uruguay
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Coordinates:
33.00 S  56.00 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Uruguay Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Montevideo, founded by the Spanish in 1726 as a military stronghold, soon took advantage of its natural harbor to become an important commercial center. Annexed by Brazil as a separate province in 1821, Uruguay declared its independence four years later and secured its freedom in 1828 after a three-year struggle. The administrations of President BATLLE in the early 20th century established widespread political, social, and economic reforms. A violent Marxist urban guerrilla movement named the Tupamaros, launched in the late 1960s, led Uruguay's president to agree to military control of his administration in 1973. By yearend, the rebels had been crushed, but the military continued to expand its hold throughout the government. Civilian rule was not restored until 1985. In 2004, the left-of-center EP-FA Coalition won national elections that effectively ended 170 years of political control previously held by the Colorado and Blanco parties. Uruguay's political and labor conditions are among the freest on the continent.
   Geography    Uruguay Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Argentina and Brazil
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
33 00 S, 56 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 176,220 sq km
land: 173,620 sq km
water: 2,600 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than the state of Washington
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,564 km
border countries: Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
660 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Catedral 514 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
arable land, hydropower, minor minerals, fisheries
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 7.77%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 91.99% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,100 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
seasonally high winds (the pampero is a chilly and occasional violent wind that blows north from the Argentine pampas), droughts, floods; because of the absence of mountains, which act as weather barriers, all locations are particularly vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water pollution from meat packing/tannery industry; inadequate solid/hazardous waste disposal
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
second-smallest South American country (after Suriname); most of the low-lying landscape (three-quarters of the country) is grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising
   People    Uruguay Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,431,932 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 22.9% (male 399,409/female 386,136)
15-64 years: 63.9% (male 1,087,180/female 1,104,465)
65 years and over: 13.3% (male 185,251/female 269,491) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 32.7 years
male: 31.3 years
female: 34.2 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.46% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.91 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.05 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 11.61 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 76.33 years
male: 73.12 years
female: 79.65 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.89 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.3% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 500 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Uruguayan(s)
adjective: Uruguayan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%, Amerindian (practically nonexistent)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 66% (less than half of the adult population attends church regularly), Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, nonprofessing or other 31%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 97.6%
female: 98.4% (2003 est.)
   Government    Uruguay Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Oriental Republic of Uruguay
conventional short form: Uruguay
local long form: Republica Oriental del Uruguay
local short form: Uruguay
former: Banda Oriental, Cisplatine Province
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Montevideo
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 25 August (1825)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
27 November 1966, effective February 1967; suspended 27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980; two constitutional reforms approved by plebiscite 26 November 1989 and 7 January 1997
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Tabare VAZQUEZ Rosas (since 1 March 2005) and Vice President Rodolfo NIN NOVOA (since 1 March 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Tabare VAZQUEZ Rosas (since 1 March 2005) and Vice President Rodolfo NIN NOVOA (since 1 March 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president with parliamentary approval
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 31 October 2004 (next to be held October 2009)
election results: Tabare VAZQUEZ elected president; percent of vote - Tabare VAZQUEZ 50.5%, Jorge LARRANAGA 35.1%, Guillermo STIRLING 10.3%; other 4.1%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (30 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; vice president has one vote in the Senate) and Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (99 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 31 October 2004 (next to be held October 2009); Chamber of Representatives - last held 31 October 2004 (next to be held October 2009)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - EP-FA 16, Blanco 11, Colorado Party 3; Chamber of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - EP-FA 52, Blanco 36, Colorado Party 10, Independent Party 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and elected for 10-year terms by the General Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Colorado Party [Julio Maria SANGUINETTI]; Independent Party (Partido Independiente) [Pablo MIERES]; Movement of Popular Participation or MPP [Jose MUJICA]; National Party or Blanco [Jorge LARRANAGA]; New Sector/Space Coalition (Nuevo Espacio) [Rafael MICHELINI]; Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition (Encuentro Progresista/Frente Amplio) or EP-FA [Tabare VAZQUEZ]; Socialist Party of Uruguay or Socialists [Reinaldo GARGANO]; Uruguayan Assembly or Asamblea Uruguay [Danilo ASTORI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Architect's Society of Uruguay (professional organization); Catholic Church; Chamber of Uruguayan Industries (manufacturer's association); Chemist and Pharmaceutical Association (professional organization); PIT-CNT (powerful federation of Uruguayan unions); Rural Association of Uruguay (rancher's association); students; Uruguayan Construction League
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
CSN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS, ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Alberto GIANELLI Derois
chancery: 1913 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 331-1313 through 1316
FAX: [1] (202) 331-8142
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
consulate(s): San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires James D. NEALON
embassy: Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo 11200
mailing address: APO AA 34035
telephone: [598] (2) 418-7777
FAX: [598] (2) 418-8611
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May with 16 rays that alternate between triangular and wavy
   Economy    Uruguay Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Uruguay's well-to-do economy is characterized by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated work force, and high levels of social spending. After averaging growth of 5% annually during 1996-98, in 1999-2002 the economy suffered a major downturn, stemming largely from the spillover effects of the economic problems of its large neighbors, Argentina and Brazil. For instance, in 2001-02 Argentina made massive withdrawals of dollars deposited in Uruguayan banks, which led to a plunge in the Uruguayan peso and a massive rise in unemployment. Total GDP in these four years dropped by nearly 20%, with 2002 the worst year due to the banking crisis. The unemployment rate rose to nearly 20% in 2002, inflation surged, and the burden of external debt doubled. Cooperation with the IMF helped stem the damage. A debt swap with private-sector creditors in 2003 extended the maturity dates on nearly half of Uruguay's then $11.3 billion of public debt and helped restore public confidence. The economy grew about 10% in 2004 as a result of high commodity prices for Uruguayan exports, a competitive peso, growth in the region, and low international interest rates, but slowed to 6.1% in 2005.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$32.96 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$13.24 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9,600 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 9.3%
industry: 31.1%
services: 59.6% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.52 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 14%
industry: 16%
services: 70%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.2% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
22% of households (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 25.8% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
44.6 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.7% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $4.468 billion
expenditures: $4.845 billion; including capital expenditures of $193 million (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
81.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, wheat, corn, barley; livestock; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, electrical machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles, chemicals, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.5% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.611 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.762 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
900 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
654 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
435 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
65 million cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$87.9 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.55 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
meat, rice, leather products, wool, fish, dairy products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 19.5%, Brazil 17%, Argentina 6.6%, Mexico 4.4%, Spain 4.3%, Germany 4.2% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.54 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, chemicals, road vehicles, crude petroleum
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Argentina 19.2%, Brazil 18.8%, Paraguay 14%, US 8.4%, China 6%, Russia 4.4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.079 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$13.24 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Uruguayan peso (UYU)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Uruguayan pesos per US dollar - 24.479 (2005), 28.704 (2004), 28.209 (2003), 21.257 (2002), 13.319 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Uruguay Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1 million (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
652,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fully digitalized
domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide microwave radio relay network
international: country code - 598; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2002)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 93, FM 191, shortwave 7 (2005)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
62 (2005)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.uy
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
112,968 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
680,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Uruguay Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
64 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 55
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 31 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 192 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,073 km
standard gauge: 2,073 km 1.435-m gauge
note: 461 km have been taken out of service and 460 km are in partial use (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 77,732 km
paved: 7,743 km
unpaved: 69,989 km (2004)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,600 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 13 ships (1000 GRT or over) 37,683 GRT/19,725 DWT
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 4 (Argentina 3, Greece 1)
registered in other countries: 7 (Argentina 1, The Bahamas 2, Liberia 3, Spain 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Montevideo, Nueva Palmira, Fray Bentos, Colonia, Juan Lacaze
   Military    Uruguay Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm, Marines, Maritime Prefecture in wartime), Air Force
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 764,408
females age 18-49: 760,341 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 637,445
females age 18-49: 631,046 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$371.2 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.1% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Uruguay Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
uncontested dispute with Brazil over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook