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Tanzania

 
Flag of Tanzania
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Coordinates:
06.00 S  35.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Tanzania Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.
   Geography    Tanzania Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
6 00 S, 35 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 945,087 sq km
land: 886,037 sq km
water: 59,050 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,861 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,424 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 4.23%
permanent crops: 1.16%
other: 94.61% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,840 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest
   People    Tanzania Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37,445,392
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 43.7% (male 8,204,593/female 8,176,489)
15-64 years: 53.6% (male 9,906,446/female 10,178,066)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 422,674/female 557,124) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17.7 years
male: 17.5 years
female: 18 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.83% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37.71 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.39 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-3.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 96.48 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 105.64 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 87.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 45.64 years
male: 44.93 years
female: 46.37 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.97 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.6 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
160,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, Rift Valley fever and plague are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources, including Arabic and English, and it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 78.2%
male: 85.9%
female: 70.7% (2003 est.)
   Government    Tanzania Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Dar es Salaam; note - legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on regular basis
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
26 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was reelected to that office on 30 October 2005
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 14 December 2005(next to be held in December 2010); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Jakaya KIKWETE elected president; percent of vote - Jakaya KIKWETE 80.3%, Ibrahim LIPUMBA 11.7%, Freeman MBOWE 5.9%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats - 232 elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the president, 5 to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats, directly elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2010)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 206, CUF 19, CHADEMA 5, other 2, women appointed by the president 37, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 30, CUF 19; 1 seat was nullified with a rerun to take place soon
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party (unregistered) [Christopher MTIKLA]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, EADB, FAO, G-6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew Mhando DARAJA
chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael L. RETZER
embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 2666-010 through 2666-015
FAX: [255] (22) 2666-701, 2668-501
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue
   Economy    Tanzania Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for almost half of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry traditionally featured the processing of agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's out-of-date economic infrastructure and to alleviate poverty. Long-term growth through 2005 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported real GDP growth of more than 6% in 2005.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$27.07 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$12.12 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$700 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 43.2%
industry: 17.2%
services: 39.6% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.22 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
36% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 30.1% (1993)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
38.2 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.3% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.235 billion
expenditures: $2.669 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
65.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); diamond, gold, and iron mining, salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.4% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.152 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.959 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
28 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$558 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.581 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 10.2%, India 8.8%, Canada 8.1%, Netherlands 5.2%, Kenya 4.6%, Japan 4.5%, UK 4.2%, Germany 4% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.391 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 12.9%, China 9.7%, India 6.5%, UAE 5.6%, Kenya 5.5%, UK 4.1%, Zambia 4.1%, Bahrain 4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.074 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.178 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$1.2 billion (2001)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - 1,128.93 (2005), 1,089.33 (2004), 1,038.42 (2003), 966.58 (2002), 876.41 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Tanzania Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
149,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.64 million (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fair system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction
domestic: trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.tz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,241 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
333,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Tanzania Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
123 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 112
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 61
under 914 m: 33 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 29 km; oil 866 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,690 km
narrow gauge: 969 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,721 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 78,891 km
paved: 6,808 km
unpaved: 72,083 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; rivers not navigable (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 10 ships (1000 GRT or over) 25,838 GRT/33,745 DWT
by type: cargo 2, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 4
registered in other countries: 1 (Honduras 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Zanzibar City
   Military    Tanzania Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Tanzanian People's Defense Force (JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing, Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
15 years of age for voluntary military service; 18 years of age for compulsory military service upon graduation from secondary school; conscript service obligation - two years (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 7,422,869 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 3,879,630 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$21.2 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.2% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Tanzania Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 443,706 (Burundi) 153,474 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 3,036 (Somalia) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
growing role in transshipment of Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for South African, European, and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for southern Africa; money laundering remains a problem

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook