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Turkmenistan

 
Flag of Turkmenistan
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Coordinates:
40.00 N  60.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Turkmenistan Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1924. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President Saparmurat NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects were to be expanded. The Turkmenistan Government is actively seeking to develop alternative petroleum transportation routes in order to break Russia's pipeline monopoly.
   Geography    Turkmenistan Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
40 00 N, 60 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 488,100 sq km
land: 488,100 sq km
water: NEGL
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,736 km
border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km; note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
subtropical desert
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m; note - Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya (the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)
note: Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya (the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)
highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, sulfur, salt
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 4.51%
permanent crops: 0.14%
other: 95.35% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
18,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; the western and central low-lying, desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau
   People    Turkmenistan Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,042,920 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 35.2% (male 913,988/female 863,503)
15-64 years: 60.7% (male 1,501,486/female 1,557,155)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 79,227/female 127,561) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 21.8 years
male: 20.9 years
female: 22.7 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.83% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27.61 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.6 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 72.56 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 76.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 68 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 61.83 years
male: 58.43 years
female: 65.41 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.37 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2004 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Turkmen(s)
adjective: Turkmen
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Russian 4%, other 6% (2003)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.3%
female: 98.3% (1999 est.)
   Government    Turkmenistan Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turkmenistan
local long form: none
local short form: Turkmenistan
former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Ashgabat
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat): Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat), Dashoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 27 October (1991)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 18 May 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
note: NIYAZOV's term in office was extended indefinitely on 28 December 1999 during a session of the People's Council (Halk Maslahaty); in November 2005 the People's Council voted down NIYAZOV's suggestion to hold presidential elections in 2009
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 June 1992; note - President NIYAZOV was unanimously approved as president for life by the People's Council on 28 December 1999; deputy chairmen of the Cabinet of Ministers are appointed by the president
election results: Saparmurat NIYAZOV elected president without opposition; percent of vote - Saparmurat NIYAZOV 99.5%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
under the 1992 constitution, there are two parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty (supreme legislative body of up to 2,500 delegates, some of whom are elected by popular vote and some of whom are appointed; meets at least yearly) and a unicameral Parliament or Mejlis (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); membership is scheduled to be increased to 65 seats
elections: People's Council - last held in April 2003 (next to be held December 2008); Mejlis - last held 19 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008)
election results: Mejlis - DPT 100%; seats by party - DPT 50; note - all 50 elected officials are members of the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan and are preapproved by President NIYAZOV
note: in late 2003, a new law was adopted, reducing the powers of the Mejlis and making the Halk Maslahaty the supreme legislative organ; the Halk Maslahaty can now legally dissolve the Mejlis, and the president is now able to participate in the Mejlis as its supreme leader; the Mejlis can no longer adopt or amend the constitution, or announce referendums or its elections; since the president is both the "Chairman for Life" of the Halk Maslahaty and the supreme leader of the Mejlis, the 2003 law has the effect of making him the sole authority of both the executive and legislative branches of government
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Saparmurat NIYAZOV]
note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries; the two most prominent opposition groups-in-exile have been National Democratic Movement of Turkmenistan (NDMT) and the United Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (UDPT); NDMT was led by former Foreign Minister Boris SHIKHMURADOV until his arrest and imprisonment in the wake of the 25 November 2002 assassination attempt on President NIYAZOV; UDPT is led by former Foreign Minister Abdy KULIEV and is based out of Moscow
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AsDB, CIS (associate), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Meret Bairamovich ORAZOV
chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Tracey A. JACOBSON
embassy: No. 9 1984 Street (formerly Pushkin Street), Ashgabat, Turkmenistan 774000
mailing address: 7070 Ashgabat Place, Washington, D.C. 20521-7070
telephone: [9] (9312) 35-00-45
FAX: [9] (9312) 39-26-14
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches similar to the olive branches on the UN flag; a white crescent moon representing Islam with five white stars representing the regions or velayats of Turkmenistan appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe
   Economy    Turkmenistan Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Turkmenistan is a largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and large gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton; formerly it was the world's tenth-largest producer. Poor harvests in recent years have led to an almost 50% decline in cotton exports. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. In 1998-2005, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports rose by 20% to 30% per year in 2003-2005, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. In 2005, Ashgabat sought to raise natural gas export prices to its main customers, Russia and Ukraine, from $44 per thousand cubic meters (tcm) to $66 per tcm. Overall prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, the burden of foreign debt, the government's irrational use of oil and gas revenues, and its unwillingness to adopt market-oriented reforms. Turkmenistan's economic statistics are state secrets, and GDP and other figures are subject to wide margins of error. In particular, the rate of GDP growth is uncertain.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$39.54 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$13.99 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
IMF estimate: 4%
note: official government statistics show 21.4% growth, but these estimates are widely regarded as unreliable (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8,000 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 20.9%
industry: 38%
services: 41.1% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.32 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 48.2%
industry: 13.8%
services: 37% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
58% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
40.8 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.5% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
35.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.401 billion
expenditures: $1.542 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, grain; livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.41 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.847 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.136 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2002)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
203,400 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
80,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
273 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
54.6 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.5 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38.6 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.01 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$236 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
gas, crude oil, petrochemicals, cotton fiber, textiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Ukraine 44.7%, Iran 16.7%, Hungary 5.6% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.175 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UAE 11.2%, Ukraine 10.5%, Turkey 9.4%, US 9.2%, Russia 9.2%, Iran 5.5%, Georgia 5.4%, Germany 5.4%, Kazakhstan 4.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.963 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.4 billion to $5 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$16 million from the US (2001)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Turkmen manat (TMM)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
in recent years the unofficial rate has hovered around 24,000 to 25,000 Turkmen manats to the dollar; the official rate has consistently been 5,200 manat to the dollar
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Turkmenistan Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
376,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
52,000 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: poorly developed
domestic: NA
international: country code - 993; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 16, FM 8, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
4 (government owned and programmed) (2004)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.tm
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
557 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Turkmenistan Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
39 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 14 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 6,549 km; oil 1,395 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,440 km
broad gauge: 2,440 km 1.520-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 24,000 km
paved: 19,488 km
unpaved: 4,512 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,300 km (Amu Darya and Kara Kum canal important inland waterways) (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 22,870 GRT/25,801 DWT
by type: barge carrier 1, cargo 4, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Turkmenbasy
   Military    Turkmenistan Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces, Artillery and Rocket Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - two years (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,132,833
females age 18-49: 1,162,569 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 759,978
females age 18-49: 940,179 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 56,532
females age 18-49: 55,413 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$90 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.4% (FY99)
   Transnational Issues    Turkmenistan Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; bilateral talks continue with Azerbaijan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian; demarcation of land boundary with Kazakhstan has started but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 12,085 (Tajikistan) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and Western European markets; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook