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Togo

 
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Coordinates:
08.00 N  01.17 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Togo Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, continued to rule well into the 21st century. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government continued to be dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967. Togo has come under fire from international organizations for human rights abuses and is plagued by political unrest. While most bilateral and multilateral aid to Togo remains frozen, the EU initiated a partial resumption of cooperation and development aid to Togo in late 2004 based upon commitments by Togo to expand opportunities for political opposition and liberalize portions of the economy. Upon his death in February 2005, President EYADEMA was succeeded by his son Faure GNASSINGBE. The succession, supported by the military and in contravention of the nation's constitution, was challenged by popular protest and a threat of sanctions from regional leaders. GNASSINGBE succumbed to pressure and agreed to hold elections in late April 2005 which legitimized his succession.
   Geography    Togo Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
56 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 2.11%
other: 53.69% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
70 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
   People    Togo Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,548,702
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 42.3% (male 1,177,141/female 1,169,321)
15-64 years: 55.1% (male 1,485,621/female 1,570,117)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 59,870/female 86,632) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18.3 years
male: 17.8 years
female: 18.7 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.72% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37.01 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.83 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 60.63 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 52.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 57.42 years
male: 55.41 years
female: 59.49 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.96 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
110,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
native African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
   Government    Togo Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Lome
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992, adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
NA years of age; universal adult
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 6 February 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE; popular elections in April 2005 validated the succession
head of government: Prime Minister Edem KODJO (since 8 June 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27 October 2002 (next to be held in 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPT 72, RSDD 3, UDPS 2, Juvento 2, MOCEP 1, independents 1
note: two opposition parties boycotted the election, the Union of the Forces for Change and the Action Committee for Renewal
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Akoussoulelou BODJONA
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Gregory ENGLE
embassy: Angle Rue Kouenou and Rue 15 Beniglato, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 221 29 91 through 221 29 94
FAX: [228] 221 79 52
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
   Economy    Togo Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings, with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow-through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a PRGF that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.965 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$1.999 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1,700 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 39.5%
industry: 20.4%
services: 40.1% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.74 million (1996)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $251.3 million
expenditures: $292.9 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
165.9 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
654.3 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
500 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,500 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$199 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$768 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Burkina Faso 16.1%, Ghana 14.8%, Benin 9.2%, Mali 7.5%, India 5.5%, Netherlands 5.1%, China 4.4% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.047 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 26.2%, India 12.1%, France 10.5%, UK 8.5% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$318 million (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2 billion (2005)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $80 million (2000 est.)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Togo Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
220,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; cellular system has capacity of 10,000 telephones
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Symphonie
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.tg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
205 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
221,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Togo Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2005)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,918 GRT/3,852 DWT
by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Kpeme, Lome
   Military    Togo Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Togolese Armed Forces (FAT): Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,102,661
females age 18-49: 1,124,463 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 696,933
females age 18-49: 707,821 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$29.98 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.6% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Togo Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
in 2001 Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook