Home>>Country Information>>    

Display this page in a new window                                 Bookmark this page
   
 

Tonga

 
Flag of Tonga
Click to enlarge
 

Coordinates:
20.00 S  175.00 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Tonga

Click to see on Google Maps

 

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Tonga Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. It became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900. Tonga acquired its independence in 1970 and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. It remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.
   Geography    Tonga Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
20 00 S, 175 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 748 sq km
land: 718 sq km
water: 30 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
419 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Kao Island 1,033 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish, fertile soil
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 14.67%
other: 65.33% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited)
   People    Tonga Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
114,689 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 35.3% (male 20,679/female 19,843)
15-64 years: 60.5% (male 34,399/female 34,964)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 2,059/female 2,745) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 20.7 years
male: 20.1 years
female: 21.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.01% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25.37 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.28 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 69.82 years
male: 67.32 years
female: 72.45 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Tongan(s)
adjective: Tongan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Polynesian, Europeans
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Tongan, English
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: can read and write Tongan and/or English
total population: 98.9%
male: 98.8%
female: 99% (1999 est.)
   Government    Tonga Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form: Tonga
former: Friendly Islands
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
hereditary constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Nuku'alofa
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
3 island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'u
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
4 November 1875; revised 1 January 1967
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965)
head of government: Acting Prime Minister Feleti SEVELE (since 11 February 2006); Deputy Prime Minister James C. COCKER (since January 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet currently consists of 14 members, 10 appointed by the monarch for life; 4 appointed from among the elected members of the Legislative Assembly, including 2 each from the nobles and peoples representatives serving three year terms
note: there is also a Privy Council that consists of the monarch, the cabinet, and two governors
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (32 seats - 14 reserved for cabinet ministers sitting ex officio, 9 for nobles selected by the country's 33 nobles, and 9 elected by popular vote; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 21 March 2005 (next to be held in 2008)
election results: Peoples Representatives: percent of vote - HRDMT 70%; seats - HRDMT 7, independents 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal (Chief Justice and high court justices from overseas chosen and approved by Privy Council)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
People's Democratic Party [Tesina FUKO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman]; Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AsDB, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Fekitamoeloa 'UTOIKAMANU
chancery: 250 East 51st Street, New York, NY 10022
telephone: [1] (917) 369-1025
FAX: [1] (917) 369-1024
consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
the US does not have an embassy in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
   Economy    Tonga Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Tonga, a small, open, South Pacific island economy, has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops, and agricultural exports make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from Tongan communities overseas to offset its trade deficit. Tourism is the second-largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, especially the encouragement of investment, and is committing increased funds for health and education. Tonga has a reasonably sound basic infrastructure and well-developed social services. High unemployment among the young, a continuing upturn in inflation, pressures for democratic reform, and rising civil service expenditures are major issues facing the government.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$244 million (2002 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
NA
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4% (FY03/04 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 23%
industry: 27%
services: 50% (FY03/04 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
33,910 (1996)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 65%
industry and services: 35% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13% (FY03/04 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.3% (2002 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $39.9 million
expenditures: $52.4 million; including capital expenditures of $1.9 million (FY99/00 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
squash, coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
tourism, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.6% (FY98/99)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
31.62 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
800 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$34 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
squash, fish, vanilla beans, root crops
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 33.3%, US 26.2%, Taiwan 14.3%, NZ 11% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$122 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
NZ 36.9%, Fiji 25.9%, Australia 8.6%, US 7.9% (2005)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$63.4 million (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
Australia $5.5 million, New Zealand $2.3 million (FY01/02)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
pa'anga (TOP)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
pa'anga per US dollar - NA (2005), 1.9716 (2004), 2.142 (2003), 2.1952 (2002), 2.1236 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Tonga Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,200 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,000 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: competition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Shoreline Communications Tonga (SCT) is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; SCT recently granted authority to develop high-speed digital service for telephone, Internet, and television
domestic: fully automatic switched network
international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2004)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2004)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (2004)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.to
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18,910 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,000 (2004)
   Transportation    Tonga Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 680 km
paved: 184 km
unpaved: 496 km (1999)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 20 ships (1000 GRT or over) 102,427 GRT/148,871 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 12, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 5 (Australia 1, Norway 1, Switzerland 1, UK 1, US 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Nuku'alofa
   Military    Tonga Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Tonga Defense Services: Ground Forces (Royal Marines, Royal Guard), Maritime Force (includes Air Wing)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (est.) (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 25,420
females ag3 18-49: 24,827 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 19,840
females age 18-49: 21,342 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males ag3 18-49: 1,586
females age 18-49: 1,538 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
   Transnational Issues    Tonga Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook