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Sweden

 
Flag of Sweden
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Coordinates:
62.00 N  15.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Sweden Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 by the global economic downturn, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Indecision over the country's role in the political and economic integration of Europe delayed Sweden's entry into the EU until 1995, and waived the introduction of the euro in 1999.
   Geography    Sweden Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
62 00 N, 15 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 449,964 sq km
land: 410,934 sq km
water: 39,030 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,233 km
border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
3,218 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.41 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5.93%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 94.06% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,150 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
   People    Sweden Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,016,596 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16.7% (male 775,433/female 732,773)
15-64 years: 65.7% (male 3,001,928/female 2,918,242)
65 years and over: 17.6% (male 689,756/female 898,464) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 40.9 years
male: 39.8 years
female: 42 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.16% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.27 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.31 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2.76 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.92 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 80.51 years
male: 78.29 years
female: 82.87 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.66 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,600 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Lutheran 87%, Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
   Government    Sweden Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Stockholm
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands, Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands, Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholms, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens, Vasternorrlands, Vastmanlands, Vastra Gotalands
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Flag Day, 6 June
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1975
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Goran PERSSON (since 21 March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the parliament; election last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held in September 2006)
election results: Goran PERSSON reelected prime minister with 131 out of 349 votes
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held on 17 September 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 39.8%, Moderates 15.2%, Liberal Party 13.3%, Christian Democrats 9.1%, Left Party 8.3%, Center Party 6.1%, Greens 4.6%; seats by party - Social Democrats 144, Moderates 55, Liberal Party 48, Christian Democrats 33, Left Party 30, Center Party 22, Greens 17
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Green Party [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party [Goran PERSSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, Arctic Council, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 6, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Gunnar LUND
chancery: 1501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20005-1702
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Stephen V. NOBLE
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds VAG 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750 (pouch)
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
   Economy    Sweden Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole of the 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 2% of GDP and of jobs. The government's commitment to fiscal discipline resulted in a substantial budgetary surplus in 2001, which was cut by more than half in 2002, due to the global economic slowdown, declining revenue, and increased spending. The Swedish central bank (the Riksbank) focuses on price stability with its inflation target of 2%. Growth remained sluggish in 2003, but picked up in 2004 and 2005. Presumably because of generous sick-leave benefits, Swedish workers report in sick more often than other Europeans. In September 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system, concerned about the impact on democracy and sovereignty.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$268 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$348.1 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.7% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$29,800 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 28.2%
services: 70.7% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.49 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2%
industry: 24%
services: 74% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.8% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 20.1% (1992)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
25 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.5% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $210.5 billion
expenditures: $205.9 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.6% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
127.9 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
131.8 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
11.5 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
24.3 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,441 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
346,100 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
203,700 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
553,100 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
980 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
968 million cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$25.62 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$126.6 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 10.4%, Germany 10.2%, Denmark 7.6%, Norway 7.1%, UK 6.6%, Finland 6.1%, Belgium 4.8%, France 4.4%, Netherlands 4.4% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$104.4 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 19.5%, Denmark 10.2%, Netherlands 7.4%, UK 7.1%, Norway 6.7%, Finland 6.5%, France 5%, Belgium 4.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$22.33 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$516.1 billion (30 June 2005)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $1.7 billion (1997)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Swedish krona (SEK)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Swedish kronor per US dollar - 7.4731 (2005), 7.3489 (2004), 8.0863 (2003), 9.7371 (2002), 10.3291 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Sweden Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.447 million (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.775 million (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 265, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
169 (plus 1,299 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.se
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,701,456 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.8 million (2005)
   Transportation    Sweden Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
255 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 155
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 80
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 36 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 100
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 91 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 798 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 11,481 km
standard gauge: 11,481 km 1.435-m gauge (9,400 km electrified) (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 424,981 km
paved: 132,339 km (including 1,544 km of expressways)
unpaved: 292,642 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,052 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 198 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,528,264 GRT/2,193,807 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 29, chemical tanker 43, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 35, petroleum tanker 16, roll on/roll off 38, specialized tanker 6, vehicle carrier 20
foreign-owned: 39 (Belgium 3, Denmark 3, Finland 11, Germany 4, Italy 7, Japan 2, Norway 8, US 1)
registered in other countries: 161 (The Bahamas 10, Bermuda 12, Cayman Islands 12, Cyprus 4, Finland 3, France 3, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 8, Gibraltar 5, Greece 1, Isle of Man 1, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 21, Netherlands Antilles 9, Norway 22, Panama 5, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 12, UK 15, US 4) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Oxelosund, Stenungsund, Stockholm, Trelleborg
   Military    Sweden Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Royal Swedish Navy (RSwN), Air Force (Flygvapnet)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 7-17 months depending on conscript role; after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age of 47 (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 19-49: 1,838,427
females age 19-49: 1,774,659 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 19-49: 1,493,668
females age 19-49: 1,441,257 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 58,724
females age 19-49: 55,954 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.51 billion (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Sweden Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook