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Sudan

 
Flag of Sudan
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Coordinates:
15.00 N  30.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Sudan

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Sudan Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972, but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than 4 million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than 2 million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords; a final Naivasha peace treaty of January 2005 granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years, after which a referendum for independence is scheduled to be held. A separate conflict that broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003 has resulted in at least 200,000 deaths and nearly 2 million displaced; as of late 2005, peacekeeping troops were struggling to stabilize the situation. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia and Chad, and armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.
   Geography    Sudan Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
15 00 N, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,505,810 sq km
land: 2.376 million sq km
water: 129,810 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7,687 km
border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
853 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 6.78%
permanent crops: 0.17%
other: 93.05% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
18,630 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
dust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
   People    Sudan Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
41,236,378 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 42.7% (male 8,993,483/female 8,614,022)
15-64 years: 54.9% (male 11,327,679/female 11,297,798)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 536,754/female 466,642) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18.3 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.5 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.55% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34.53 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.97 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 61.05 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 61.88 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 60.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 58.92 years
male: 57.69 years
female: 60.21 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.72 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.3% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
400,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
note: program of "Arabization" in process
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.1%
male: 71.8%
female: 50.5% (2003 est.)
   Government    Sudan Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Government of National Unity (GNU) - the National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA); the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulates national elections for the 2008 - 2009 timeframe.
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Khartoum
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazirah (El Gezira), Al Khartum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al Wahdah (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shamaliyah (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Bahr al Jabal), Gharb al Istiwa'iyah (Western Equatoria), Gharb Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr al Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Gharb Kurdufan (Western Kordofan), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqali (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala), Nahr an Nil (Nile), Shamal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr al Ghazal), Shamal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shamal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwa'iyah (Eastern Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
12 April 1973; suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 June 1998 partially suspended 12 December 1999 by President BASHIR; under the CPA, Interim National Constitution ratified 5 July 2005; Constitution of Southern Sudan signed December 2005
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and Shari'a law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Shari'a law in the northern states; Shari'a law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations; the southern legal system is still developing under the CPA following the civil war; Shari'a law will not apply to the southern states
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age; universal, but noncompulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Field Marshal Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 August 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 September 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Field Marshal Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 August 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 September 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections: election last held 13-23 December 2000; next to be held no later than July 2009 under terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
election results: Field Marshall Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Ja'afar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees for a free and fair election
note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote for the first time in March 1996
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bi-cameral body comprising the National Assembly and Council of States (replaced unicameral National Assembly of 360 seats); pending elections and National Election Law, the Presidency appointed 450 members to the National Assembly according to the provisions of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement: 52% NCP; 28% SPLM; 14% other Northerners; 6% other Southerners; 2 representatives from every state constitute the Council of States; terms in each chamber are five years following the first elections
elections: last held 13-22 December 2000 (next to be held 2008-2009 timeframe)
election results: NCP 355, others 5; note - replaced by appointments under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
political parties in the Government of National Unity include: National Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed OMAR]; Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva Mayardit KIIR]; and elements of the National Democratic Alliance or NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Umma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires, Ad Interim Khidir HAROUN (since April 2001)
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron HUME
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Avenue, Khartoum
mailing address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (11) 774611 or 774700
FAX: [249] (11) 774137
note: US Consul in Cairo is providing backup service for Khartoum; consular services are being established in Juba (southern Sudan)
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
   Economy    Sudan Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Sudan has turned around a struggling economy with sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems, starting from its low level of per capita output. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms. In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, which, along with monetary policy, has stabilized the exchange rate. Increased oil production, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain GDP growth at 8.6% in 2004. Agricultural production remains Sudan's most important sector, employing 80% of the work force, contributing 39% of GDP, and accounting for most of GDP growth, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Chronic instability - resulting from the long-standing civil war between the Muslim north and the Christian/pagan south, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices - ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$85.65 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$22.75 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2,100 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 38.7%
industry: 20.3%
services: 41% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11 million (1996 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 80%
industry: 7%
services: 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.7% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
40% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $6.182 billion
expenditures: $5.753 billion; including capital expenditures of $304 million (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
107% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.5% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.165 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.943 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
401,300 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
70,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
275,000 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.6 billion bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
84.95 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$3.013 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.989 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 46.7%, Japan 32.7%, Saudi Arabia 3.9% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.028 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 20.6%, Saudi Arabia 8.6%, Germany 4.4%, UAE 4.4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.45 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$27.34 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$172 million (2001)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Sudanese dinar (SDD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Sudanese dinars per US dollar - 243.61 (2005), 257.91 (2004), 260.98 (2003), 263.31 (2002), 258.7 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Sudan Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,028,900 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,048,600 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 249; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2000)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.sd
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.14 million (2005)
   Transportation    Sudan Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
86 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 72
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 16 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 156 km; oil 2,365 km; refined products 810 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5,995 km
narrow gauge: 4,595 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km .600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 11,326 GRT/14,068 DWT
by type: cargo 1, livestock carrier 1
registered in other countries: 2 (Panama 1, Saudi Arabia 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Port Sudan
   Military    Sudan Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Sudanese People's Armed Forces (SPAF): Army, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Force
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - three years (August 2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 8,291,695
females age 18-49: 8,135,683 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 5,427,474
females age 18-49: 5,649,566 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 442,915
females age 18-49: 426,320 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$587 million (2001 est.) (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (1999) (2004)
   Transnational Issues    Sudan Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-twentieth century have penetrated all of its border states that provide shelter for fleeing refugees and cover to disparate domestic and foreign conflicting elements; since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military have driven about 200,000 Darfur region refugees into eastern Chad; large numbers of Sudanese refugees have also fled to Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; southern Sudan provides shelter to Ugandans seeking periodic protection from soldiers of the Lord's Resistance Army; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia have been delayed by civil and ethnic fighting in Sudan; Kenya's administrative boundary extends into the southern Sudan, creating the "Ilemi Triangle"; Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egypt is economically developing the "Hala'ib Triangle" north of the Treaty Line; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations from the Central African Republic along the border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 110,927 (Eritrea) 5,023 (Chad) 7,983 (Uganda) 14,812 (Ethiopia)
IDPs: 5,300,000 - 6,200,000 (internal conflict since 1980s; ongoing genocide) (2005)

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook