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Singapore

 
Flag of Singapore
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Coordinates:
01.37 N  103.80 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Singapore

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Singapore Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but separated two years later and became independent. It subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.
   Geography    Singapore Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
1 22 N, 103 48 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 692.7 sq km
land: 682.7 sq km
water: 10 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
193 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon (December to March) and Southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Elevation extremes:
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lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish, deepwater ports
Land use:
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arable land: 1.47%
permanent crops: 1.47%
other: 97.06% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
industrial pollution; limited natural fresh water resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
   People    Singapore Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,492,150 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 15.6% (male 362,329/female 337,964)
15-64 years: 76.1% (male 1,666,709/female 1,750,736)
65 years and over: 8.3% (male 165,823/female 208,589) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 37.3 years
male: 36.9 years
female: 37.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.42% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.34 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.28 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2.29 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 81.71 years
male: 79.13 years
female: 84.49 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.06 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,100 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Chinese 76.8%, Malay 13.9%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4% (2000 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Buddhist 42.5%, Muslim 14.9%, Taoist 8.5%, Hindu 4%, Catholic 4.8%, other Christian 9.8%, other 0.7%, none 14.8% (2000 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Mandarin 35%, English 23%, Malay 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew 4.9%, Tamil 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9% (2000 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 96.6%
female: 88.6% (2002)
   Government    Singapore Top of Page
Country name:
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conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore
Government type:
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parliamentary republic
Capital:
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Singapore
Administrative divisions:
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none
Independence:
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9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 9 August (1965)
Constitution:
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3 June 1959; amended 1965 (based on preindependence State of Singapore Constitution)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President S. R. NATHAN (since 1 September 1999)
note: uses S. R. NATHAN but his full name and the one used in formal communications is Sellapan RAMANATHAN
head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Shunmugan JAYAKUMAR (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Minister WONG Kan Seng (since 1 September 2005); Senior Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 12 August 2004); Minister Mentor LEE Kuan Yew (since 12 August 2004)
cabinet: appointed by president, responsible to parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term; last appointed 17 August 2005 - see note (next election to be held by August 2011); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by president
election results: Sellapan Rama (S. R.) NATHAN appointed president in August 2005 after Presidential Elections Committee disqualified three other would-be candidates; scheduled election not held
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament (84 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in addition, there are up to nine nominated members; the losing opposition candidate who came closest to winning a seat may be appointed as a "nonconstituency" member
elections: last held 6 May 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 66.6%, WP 16.3%, SDA 13%, SDP 4.1%; seats by party - PAP 82, WP 1, SDA 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (chief justice is appointed by the president with the advice of the prime minister, other judges are appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice); Court of Appeals
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong]; Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [CHIAM See Tong]; Singapore Democratic Party or SDP [CHEE Soon Juan]; Workers' Party or WP [Sylvia Lim Swee LIAN]
note: SDA includes National Solidarity Party or NSP, Singapore Justice Party or SJP, Singapore National Malay Organization or PKMS, Singapore People's Party or SPP
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador CHAN Heng Chee
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
consulate(s) general: San Francisco
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia L. HERBOLD
embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001
telephone: [65] 6476-9100
FAX: [65] 6476-9340
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle
   Economy    Singapore Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore, a highly-developed and successful free-market economy, enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP equal to that of the four largest West European countries. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in electronics and manufacturing. It was hard hit in 2001-03 by the global recession, by the slump in the technology sector, and by an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003, which curbed tourism and consumer spending. The government hopes to establish a new growth path that will be less vulnerable to the external business cycle and will continue efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub. Fiscal stimulus, low interest rates, a surge in exports, and internal flexibility led to vigorous growth in 2004, with real GDP rising by 8% - by far the economy's best performance since 2000 - but growth slowed to 5.7% in 2005.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$124.3 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$110.6 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.4% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$28,100 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: negligible
industry: 33.9%
services: 66.1% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.28 million (September 2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
manufacturing 18%, construction 6%, transportation and communication 11%, financial, business, and other services 39%, other 26% (2003)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.1% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
42.5 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.4% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $18.67 billion
expenditures: $18.21 billion; including capital expenditures of $5.1 billion (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
102.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rubber, copra, fruit, orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.5% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36.8 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
33.2 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,290 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
800,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.32 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.5 billion cu m
note: from Indonesia and Malaysia (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$32.74 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$204.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment (including electronics), consumer goods, chemicals, mineral fuels
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Malaysia 14.7%, US 11.5%, Hong Kong 10.4%, China 9.5%, Japan 6%, Thailand 4.5%, Taiwan 4.3%, Australia 4.1% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$188.3 billion (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Malaysia 14.4%, US 12.4%, China 10.8%, Japan 10.1%, Taiwan 6.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.7%, South Korea 4.5% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$115.8 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$23.76 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Singapore dollar (SGD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore dollars per US dollar - 1.6644 (2005), 1.6902 (2004), 1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002), 1.7917 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Singapore Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,847,800 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,256,800 (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: excellent service
domestic: excellent domestic facilities; launched 3G wireless service in February 2005
international: country code - 65; 9 submarine cables provide direct connection to more than 100 countries; 4 satellite earth stations, supplemented by VSAT coverage
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 17, shortwave 2 (2003)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (broadcasting on six channels); additional reception of numerous UHF and VHF signals originating in Malaysia and Indonesia; note - digital TV for reception in public spaces and transportation is transmitted from 10 sites (2006)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.sg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
679,369 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,421,800 (2005)
   Transportation    Singapore Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 139 km (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,165 km
paved: 3,130 km (including 150 km of expressways) (2003)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,003 ships (1000 GRT or over) 29,116,937 GRT/46,517,745 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 149, cargo 85, chemical tanker 128, container 196, liquefied gas 45, livestock carrier 2, petroleum tanker 340, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 39
foreign-owned: 554 (Australia 6, Bangladesh 1, Belgium 9, China 20, Denmark 44, Germany 7, Greece 8, Hong Kong 53, India 4, Indonesia 49, Japan 93, South Korea 17, Malaysia 35, Netherlands 1, Norway 96, Philippines 3, Slovenia 1, Sweden 12, Taiwan 49, Thailand 23, UAE 7, UK 10, US 6)
registered in other countries: 277 (The Bahamas 14, Bangladesh 9, Belize 4, Bolivia 2, Cambodia 4, Cyprus 2, Dominica 11, Honduras 12, Hong Kong 25, Indonesia 14, Isle of Man 8, South Korea 1, Liberia 16, Malaysia 56, Marshall Islands 5, Mongolia 8, Nigeria 1, Norway 4, Panama 57, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 7, Thailand 9, Tuvalu 2, Venezuela 1, unknown 5) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore
   Military    Singapore Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for volunteers; conscript service obligation reduced to 24 months beginning December 2004 (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,215,568 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 982,368 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.47 billion (FY01 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.9% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Singapore Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
disputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, maritime boundaries, and Pedra Branca Island/Pulau Batu Putih - parties agree to ICJ arbitration on island dispute within three years; Indonesia and Singapore pledged in 2005 to finalize their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook