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Rwanda

 
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Coordinates:
02.00 S  30.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Rwanda Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in the genocide of roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the killing in July 1994, but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and the former Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but about 10,000 remain in neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo and have formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF tried in 1990. Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Rwanda's first local elections in March 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in August and September 2003 - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output, and ethnic reconciliation is complicated by the real and perceived Tutsi political dominance. Kigali's increasing centralization and intolerance of dissent, the nagging Hutu extremist insurgency across the border, and Rwandan involvement in two wars in recent years in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts to escape its bloody legacy.
   Geography    Rwanda Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
2 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 26,338 sq km
land: 24,948 sq km
water: 1,390 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 893 km
border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m
highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 45.56%
permanent crops: 10.25%
other: 44.19% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
90 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural
   People    Rwanda Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,648,248
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 41.9% (male 1,817,998/female 1,802,134)
15-64 years: 55.6% (male 2,392,778/female 2,417,467)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male 87,325/female 130,546) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18.6 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 18.8 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.43% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
40.37 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.09 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 89.61 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 94.71 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 84.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 47.3 years
male: 46.26 years
female: 48.38 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.43 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
250,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Rwandan(s)
adjective: Rwandan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.4%
male: 76.3%
female: 64.7% (2003 est.)
People - note:
Definition Field Listing
Rwanda is the most densely populated country in Africa
   Government    Rwanda Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda
conventional short form: Rwanda
local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda
local short form: Rwanda
former: Ruanda, German East Africa
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic; presidential, multiparty system
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Kigali
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
12 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - prefigintara for singular and plural); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo, Kibuye, Kigali Rurale, Kigali-ville, Umutara, Ruhengeri
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
new constitution adopted 4 June 2003
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal adult
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: President elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 25 August 2003 (next to be held NA 2008)
election results: Paul KAGAME elected president in first direct popular vote; Paul KAGAME 95.05%, Faustin TWAGIRAMUNGU 3.62%, Jean-Nepomuscene NAYINZIRA 1.33%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of Senate (26 seats; 12 members elected local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 by the Political Organizations Forum, 2 represent institutions of higher learning, to serve eight-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies (80 seats; 53 members elected by popular vote, 24 women elected by local bodies, 3 selected by youth and disability organizations, to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held NA, members appointed as part of the transitional government (next to be held in 2011); Chamber of Deputies - last held 29 September 2003 (next to be held in 2008)
election results: seats by party under the 2003 Constitution - RPF 40, PSD 7, PL 6, additional 27 members indirectly elected
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; High Courts of the Republic; Provincial Courts; District Courts; mediation committees
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Alfred MUKEZAMFURA]; Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [Adrien RANGIRA]; Democratic Republican Movement or MDR (officially banned) [Celestin KABANDA]; Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Andre BUMAYA]; Liberal Party or PL [Prosper HIGIRO]; Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned); Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
IBUKA - association of genocide survivors
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Zac NSENGA
chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael ARIETTI
embassy: 337 Boulevard de la Revolution, Kigali
mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali
telephone: [250] 50 56 01 through 03
FAX: [250] 57 2128
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal bands of sky blue (top, double width), yellow, and green, with a golden sun with 24 rays near the fly end of the blue band
   Economy    Rwanda Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa and is landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary foreign exchange earners are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels, although poverty levels are higher now. GDP has rebounded and inflation has been curbed. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, requiring food imports. Rwanda continues to receive substantial aid money and obtained IMF-World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative debt relief in 2005. Kigali's high defense expenditures have caused tension between the government and international donors and lending agencies. An energy shortage and instability in neighboring states may slow growth in 2006, while the lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continues to handicap export growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$12.65 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$1.817 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.2% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1,500 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 40.1%
industry: 22.9%
services: 37% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.6 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 90%
industry and services: 10%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
60% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 24.2% (1985)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
28.9 (1985)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.1% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $509.9 million
expenditures: $584.6 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
98 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
121.1 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
30 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
56.63 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$166 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$98 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesia 63.9%, Germany 3.6%, China 2.3% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$243 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Kenya 24.6%, Uganda 6.4%, Germany 5.6%, Belgium 5.4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$357 million (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.4 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$425 million (2003)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Rwandan franc (RWF)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Rwandan francs per US dollar - 610 (2005), 574.62 (2004), 537.66 (2003), 476.33 (2002), 442.8 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Rwanda Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23,200 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
138,700
note: Rwanda has mobile cellular service between Kigali and several provincial capitals (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: telephone system primarily serves business and government
domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the provinces by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone
international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 8 (two main FM programs are broadcast through a system of repeaters, three international FM programs include the BBC, VOA, and Deutchewelle), shortwave 1 (2005)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2004)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.rw
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,588 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Rwanda Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (2005)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 12,000 km
paved: 996 km
unpaved: 11,004 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye
   Military    Rwanda Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Rwandan Defense Forces: Army, Air Force
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 16-49: 2,004,750
females age 16-49: 1,990,935 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 16-49: 1,103,823
females age 16-49: 1,096,644 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$53.66 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.9% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Rwanda Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Tutsi, Hutu, Hema, Lendu, and other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting in Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to gain control over populated areas and natural resources - government heads pledge to end conflicts, but localized violence continues despite UN peacekeeping efforts; DROC and Rwanda established a border verification mechanism in 2005 to address accusations of Rwandan military supporting Congolese rebels and the Congo providing rebel Rwandan "Interhamwe" forces the means and bases to attack Rwandan forces; as of 2004, Rwandan refugees lived in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, and Zambia
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 45,460 (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
IDPs: 4,158 (incursions by Hutu rebels from Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1997-99; most IDPs in northwest) (2005)

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook