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Romania

 
Flag of Romania
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Coordinates:
46.00 N  25.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Romania

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Romania Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 and a few years later adopted the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Although Romania completed accession talks with the European Union (EU) in December 2004, it must continue to address rampant corruption - while invigorating lagging economic and democratic reforms - to fulfill the requirements for EU accession, scheduled to take place in 2007 or 2008. Romania joined NATO in March of 2004.
   Geography    Romania Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
46 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
225 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 39.49%
permanent crops: 1.92%
other: 58.59% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
30,770 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
   People    Romania Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22,303,552 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 15.7% (male 1,799,072/female 1,708,030)
15-64 years: 69.6% (male 7,724,368/female 7,797,065)
65 years and over: 14.7% (male 1,347,392/female 1,927,625) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 36.6 years
male: 35.3 years
female: 37.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.12% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.7 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.77 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 25.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 28.64 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 22.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 71.63 years
male: 68.14 years
female: 75.34 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.37 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
350 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1% (2002 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Romanian (official), Hungarian, German
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.4%
male: 99.1%
female: 97.7% (2003 est.)
   Government    Romania Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Bucharest
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin; kingdom proclaimed 26 March 1881); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
8 December 1991; revision effective 29 October 2003
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Calin Popescu-TARICEANU (since 29 December 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 November 2004, with runoff between the top two candidates held 12 December 2004 (next to be held November-December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
election results: percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 51.23%, Adrian NASTASE 48.77%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (137 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (332 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 28 November 2004 (next expected to be held in November 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 28 November 2004 (next expected to be held November 2008)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PUR 37.1%, PNL-PD 31.8%, PRM 13.6%, UDMR 6.2%; seats by party - PSD 44, PNL 30, PD 20, PRM 20, PC 11, UDMR 10, independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PUR 36.8%, PNL-PD 31.5%, PRM 13%, UDMR 6.2%; seats by party - PSD 111, PNL 66, PD 45, PRM 34, ex-PRM (Ciontu Group) 12, UDMR 22, PC 20, PIN (GUSA Group) 3, independent 1, ethnic minorities 18
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-year terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, with three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Conservative Party or PC [Dan VOICULESCU], formerly Humanist Party or PUR; Democratic Party or PD [Emil BOC]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Calin Popescu-TARICEANU]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Mircea Dan GEOANA], formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
various human rights and professional associations
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Sorin Dumitru DUCARU
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas F. TAUBMAN
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 316-4052
FAX: [40] (21) 316-0395
branch office(s): Cluj-Napoca
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
   Economy    Romania Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Romania began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Despite the global slowdown in 2001-02, strong domestic activity in construction, agriculture, and consumption have kept GDP growth above 4%. An IMF standby agreement, signed in 2001, has been accompanied by slow but palpable gains in privatization, deficit reduction, and the curbing of inflation. The IMF Board approved Romania's completion of the standby agreement in October 2003, the first time Romania has successfully concluded an IMF agreement since the 1989 revolution. In July 2004, the executive board of the IMF approved a 24-month standby agreement for $367 million. IMF concerns about Romania's tax policy and budget deficit led to a breakdown of this agreement in 2005. In the past, the IMF has criticized the government's fiscal, wage, and monetary policies. Meanwhile, macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and address Romania's widespread poverty, while corruption and red tape continue to handicap the business environment. Romanian government confidence in continuing disinflation was underscored by its currency revaluation in 2005, making 10,000 "old" lei equal 1 "new" leu.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$183.6 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$72.7 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8,200 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 10.1%
industry: 35%
services: 54.9% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.31 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 31.6%
industry: 30.7%
services: 37.7% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.9% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
25% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 27.6% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
28.8 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $29.97 billion
expenditures: $31.37 billion; including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
51.7 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
45.16 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
3.3 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
380 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
119,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
235,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.055 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.3 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.4 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100.7 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$8.456 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$27.72 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
textiles and footwear, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment, minerals and fuels, chemicals, agricultural products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 18.3%, Germany 14.6%, Turkey 7.7%, France 6.6%, Austria 5.6%, UK 5.1%, Hungary 4.6%, US 4.5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$38.15 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, fuels and minerals, chemicals, textile and products, basic metals, agricultural products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 16.4%, Italy 15.1%, Russia 6.8%, France 6.3%, Austria 5.8%, Hungary 5.7%, Turkey 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$21.6 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$35.68 billion (2005 est.)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
leu (ROL) is being phased out in 2006; "new" leu (RON) was introduced in 2005 due to currency revaluation: 10,000 ROL = 1 RON
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
lei per US dollar - 3 (2005), 3 (2004), 3 (2003), 3 (2002), 3 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Romania Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,389,100 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,215,400 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: rapidly improving domestic and international service, especially in wireless telephony
domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; liberalization in 2003 is transforming telecommunications; there has been 20% growth in fixed lines with a penetration rate of 58% of households; nation-wide wireless service is growing even faster with four major providers and a penetration rate of 32%
international: country code - 40; satellite earth station - 10 (Intelsat 4); digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2005)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
48 (plus 392 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ro
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
56,188 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5 million (2004)
   Transportation    Romania Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
61 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 23 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 3,508 km; oil 2,427 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 11,385 km (3,888 km electrified)
standard gauge: 10,898 km 1.435-m gauge
broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 198,817 km
paved: 60,043 km (including 228 km of expressways)
unpaved: 138,774 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,731 km
note: includes 1,075 km on Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 204,803 GRT/255,382 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 16, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Italy 2)
registered in other countries: 41 (Georgia 8, North Korea 16, Malta 3, Panama 9, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Syria 3) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Braila, Constanta, Galati, Tulcea
   Military    Romania Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces (AMR), Special Operations, Civil Defense (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
after 1 January 2007 conscription will no longer be basis for military service; all military inductees (including women) will be volunteers who contract for an initial five-year term of service; subsequent voluntary service contracts would be for successive three-year long terms; minimum age for voluntary military service is 18; currently minimum age is 20 for compulsory military service, 18 years of age in wartime; conscript service obligation is for 12 months (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 20-49: 5,061,984
females age 20-49: 4,975,427 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 20-49: 3,932,579
females age 20-49: 4,076,288 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 172,093
females age 20-49: 165,547 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$985 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.47% (2002)
   Transnational Issues    Romania Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Romania and Ukraine have taken their dispute over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary to the ICJ for adjudication; Romania also opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea; Hungary amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits to ethnic Hungarians in Romania, to which Romania had objected
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook