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Portugal

 
Flag of Portugal
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Coordinates:
39.50 N  08.00 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Portugal Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence in 1822 of Brazil as a colony. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.
   Geography    Portugal Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
39 30 N, 8 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 92,391 sq km
land: 91,951 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,793 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 17.29%
permanent crops: 7.84%
other: 74.87% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
6,500 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
   People    Portugal Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,605,870 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16.5% (male 915,604/female 839,004)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 3,484,545/female 3,544,674)
65 years and over: 17.2% (male 751,899/female 1,070,144) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.5 years
male: 36.4 years
female: 40.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.36% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.72 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4.98 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.45 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 77.7 years
male: 74.43 years
female: 81.2 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.47 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.4% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 1,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 94%, Protestant (1995)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.3%
male: 95.5%
female: 91.3% (2003 est.)
   Government    Portugal Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Lisbon
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (independent republic proclaimed)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Portugal Day (Day of Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
25 April 1976; revised many times
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO Silva (since 9 March 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Jose SOCRATES (since 12 March 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held January 2011); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Anibal CAVACO Silva elected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO Silva 50.6%, Manuel ALEGRE 20.7%, Mario SOARES 14.3%, Jeronimo de SOUSA 8.5%, Franciso LOUCA 5.3%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 February 2005 (next to be held February 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 45.1%, PSD 28.7%, CDU 7.6%, PP 7.3%, BE 6.4%; seats by party - PS 121, PSD 75, CDU 14, PP 12, BE 8
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Green Ecologist Party or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]; Popular Party or PP [Jose Ribeiro e CASTRO]; Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo de SOUSA]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Luis Marques MENDES]; The Left Bloc or BE [Franciso Anacleto LOUCA]; Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU (includes PEV and PCP) [Jeronimo de SOUSA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Pedro Manuel Dos Reis Alves CATARINO
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 350-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), San Francisco
consulate(s): New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Alfred J. HOFFMAN Jr.
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line
   Economy    Portugal Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community in 1986. Over the past decade, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member economies. Economic growth had been above the EU average for much of the past decade, but fell back in 2001-05. GDP per capita stands at two-thirds that of the Big Four EU economies. A poor educational system, in particular, has been an obstacle to greater productivity and growth. Portugal has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a target for foreign direct investment. The government faces tough choices in its attempts to boost Portugal's economic competitiveness while keeping the budget deficit within the eurozone's 3%-of-GDP ceiling.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$204.4 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$170.3 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.3% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$19,300 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 5.3%
industry: 27.4%
services: 67.3% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.52 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 10%
industry: 30%
services: 60% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.6% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
38.5 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.3% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $78.84 billion
expenditures: $90.27 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
63.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, swine, poultry, dairy products; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metals and metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; rubber and plastic products; ceramics; electronics and communications equipment; rail transportation equipment; aerospace equipment; ship construction and refurbishment; wine; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
44.32 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
44.01 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
3.1 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
5.9 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
326,500 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28,830 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
357,300 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.983 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.553 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$17.1 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$38.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals, cork and paper products, hides
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Spain 25.5%, France 12.8%, Germany 11.8%, UK 8.1%, US 5.4%, Italy 4.1% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$60.35 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum, textiles, agricultural products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Spain 28.5%, Germany 13.2%, France 8.5%, Italy 5.1%, UK 4.3%, Netherlands 4.2% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$10.36 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$287.8 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $271 million (1995)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Portugal Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,238,300 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,362,100 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities and a main line telephone density of 53%
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: country code - 351; 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
62 (plus 166 repeaters)
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.pt
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
845,980 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.09 million (2005)
   Transportation    Portugal Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
66 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 42
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 10 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 23 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 1,099 km; oil 8 km; refined products 174 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,850 km
broad gauge: 2,576 km 1.668-m gauge (623 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 274 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 72,600 km
paved: 62,436 km (including 1,700 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,164 km (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2003)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 113 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,121,828 GRT/1,475,213 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 14, cargo 28, chemical tanker 15, container 7, liquefied gas 11, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 9
foreign-owned: 87 (Australia 1, Belgium 7, Denmark 7, Germany 17, Greece 4, Italy 10, Japan 9, Lebanon 1, Malta 1, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 8, Spain 17, Switzerland 3)
registered in other countries: 19 (Cyprus 1, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 2, Panama 12) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
   Military    Portugal Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP), National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana) (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for voluntary military service; compulsory military service was ended in 2004; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties (2005)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 2,435,042
females age 18-49: 2,405,816 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,952,819
females age 18-49: 1,977,264 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 67,189
females age 18-49: 60,626 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3,497.8 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.3% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Portugal Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market (especially from Brazil); transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook