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Peru

 
Flag of Peru
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Coordinates:
10.00 S  76.00 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Peru

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Peru Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime. FUJIMORI won reelection to a third term in the spring of 2000, but international pressure and corruption scandals led to his ouster by Congress in November of that year. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government; his presidency has been hampered by allegations of corruption.
   Geography    Peru Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
10 00 S, 76 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,536 km
border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
2,414 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.88%
permanent crops: 0.47%
other: 96.65% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
12,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
   People    Peru Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28,302,603 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 30.9% (male 4,456,195/female 4,300,233)
15-64 years: 63.7% (male 9,078,123/female 8,961,981)
65 years and over: 5.3% (male 709,763/female 796,308) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 25.3 years
male: 25 years
female: 25.5 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.32% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.48 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 30.94 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 33.49 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 69.84 years
male: 68.05 years
female: 71.71 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.51 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
82,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.7%
male: 93.5%
female: 82.1% (2004 est.)
   Government    Peru Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Lima
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
31 December 1993
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - members of the military and national police may not vote
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); First Vice President (vacant); Second Vice President David WAISMAN Rjavinsthi (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); First Vice President (vacant); Second Vice President David WAISMAN Rjavinsthi (since 28 July 2001)
note: Prime Minister Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI (since 25 August 2005) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential and congressional elections held 9 April 2006, with runoff election held 4 June 2006; next to be held April 2011
election results: Alan GARCIA elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%; note - official results pending; Alan GARCIA is set to take office 28 July 2006
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 April 2006 (next to be held April 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2%, PAP 20.6%, UN 15.3%, AF 13.1%, FC 7.1%, PP 4.1%, RN 4.0%; seats by party - UPP 45, PAP 36, UN 17, AF 13, FC 5, PP 2, RN 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF - a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva Mayoria, and Si Cumple [Martha CHAVEZ Cossio]; Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC - a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes [Valentin PANIAGUA Corazoa]; Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; Nationalist Party Uniting Peru (Partido Nacionalista Uniendo al Peru) or UPP - a coalition of Union for Peru (UPP) and Peruvian Nationalist Party (PNP) [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [David WAISMAN]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP - also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA [Alan GARCIA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, CAN, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Eduardo FERRERO Costa
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Curtis STRUBLE
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
   Economy    Peru Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4 percent per year during the period 2002-2005, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government's prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, the TOLEDO administration remained unpopular in 2005, and unemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Economic growth will be driven by the Camisea natural gas megaproject and by exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products. Peru is expected to sign a free-trade agreement with the United States in early 2006.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$164.5 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$69.81 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.7% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 8%
industry: 27%
services: 65% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.06 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 9%
industry: 18%
services: 73% (2001)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.6% in metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
54% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
49.8 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.6% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $21.87 billion
expenditures: $22.47 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion for general government, but excluding private enterprises (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.9% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.68 billion kWh (2003 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.09 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
120,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
157,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
49,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
370 million bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
560 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
910 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
247.1 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.03 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$15.95 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 31.1%, China 10.8%, Chile 6.6%, Canada 5.9%, Switzerland 4.6% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$12.15 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 18.2%, China 8.5%, Brazil 8%, Ecuador 7.4%, Colombia 6.1%, Argentina 5.1%, Chile 5.1%, Venezuela 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$14.18 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$30.94 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$491 million (2002)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
nuevo sol (PEN)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.2958 (2005), 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003), 3.5165 (2002), 3.5068 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Peru Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,049,800 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,092,600 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: adequate for most requirements
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: country code - 51; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.pe
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
205,532 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.57 million (2005)
   Transportation    Peru Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
246 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 54
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 192
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 59
under 914 m: 111 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 388 km; oil 1,557 km; refined products 13 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,462 km
standard gauge: 2,962 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 500 km 0.914-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 78,672 km
paved: 10,314 km (including 276 km of expressways)
unpaved: 68,358 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,808 km
note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 38,954 GRT/62,255 DWT
by type: cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (US 1)
registered in other countries: 14 (Panama 14) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
   Military    Peru Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Naval Infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory military service (1999)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 6,647,874
females age 18-49: 6,544,408 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 4,938,417
females age 18-49: 5,278,511 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 277,105
females age 18-49: 269,799 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$829.3 million (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4% (2003 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Peru Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral law to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundary along the parallel of latitude to an equidistance line which favors Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru does not support Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer; cultivation of coca in Peru fell 15% to 31,150 hectares between 2002 and the end of 2003; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook