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Paraguay

 
Flag of Paraguay
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Coordinates:
23.00 S  58.00 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Paraguay

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Paraguay Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70), Paraguay lost two-thirds of all adult males and much of its territory. It stagnated economically for the next half century. In the Chaco War of 1932-35, large, economically important areas were won from Bolivia. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER was overthrown in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, relatively free and regular presidential elections have been held since then.
   Geography    Paraguay Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central South America, northeast of Argentina
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
23 00 S, 58 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 406,750 sq km
land: 397,300 sq km
water: 9,450 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,920 km
border countries: Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,290 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m
highest point: Cerro Pero (Cerro Tres Kandu) 842 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 7.47%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 92.29% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
670 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal pose health risks for many urban residents; loss of wetlands
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country
   People    Paraguay Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,506,464 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 37.7% (male 1,245,149/female 1,204,970)
15-64 years: 57.5% (male 1,878,761/female 1,862,266)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 145,899/female 169,419) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 21.3 years
male: 21.1 years
female: 21.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.45% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29.1 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.49 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 24.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 29.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 75.1 years
male: 72.56 years
female: 77.78 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.89 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
600 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Paraguayan(s)
adjective: Paraguayan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 90%, Mennonite and other Protestant 10%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish (official), Guarani (official)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94%
male: 94.9%
female: 93% (2003 est.)
   Government    Paraguay Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Paraguay
conventional short form: Paraguay
local long form: Republica del Paraguay
local short form: Paraguay
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Asuncion
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
17 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital city*; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion*, Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
14 May 1811 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 14 May 1811 (observed 15 May annually)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
promulgated 20 June 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 75
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS (since 15 August 2003); Vice President Luis CASTIGLIONI Joria (since 15 August 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS (since 15 August 2003); Vice President Luis CASTIGLIONI Joria (since 15 August 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 27 April 2003 (next to be held April 2008)
election results: Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS elected president; percent of vote - Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS 37.1%, Julio Cesar Ramon FRANCO Gomez 23.9%, Pedro Nicolas Maraa FADUL Niella 21.3%, Guillermo SANCHEZ Guffanti 13.5%, other 4.2%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators - last held 27 April 2003 (next to be held April 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 27 April 2003 (next to be held April 2008)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANR 16, PLRA 12, UNACE 7, PQ 7, PPS 2, PEN 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ANR 37, PLRA 21, UNACE 10, PQ 10, PPS 2
note: as of January 2006, changes in party affiliation has led to the composition of the legislature as follows: Chamber of Senators - seats by party - ANR 18, PLRA 12, UNACE 5, PQ 7, PPS 2, PEN 1; Chamber of Deputies - seats by party - ANR 39, PLRA 21, UNACE 8, PQ 10, PPS 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges appointed on the proposal of the Council of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Asociacion Nacional Republicana - Colorado Party or ANR [Herminio CACERES, interim president]; Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Enrique GONZALEZ Quintana, acting chairman]; Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PQ [Pedro Nicolas Maraa FADUL Niella]; Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Luis TORALES Kennedy]; Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Blas LLANO]; Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
note: Nicanor DUARTE FRUTOS on leave as party leader of the Colorado Party or ANR while serving as President of Paraguay; Lino Cesar OVIEDO Silva, leader of UNACE, is currently serving a ten-year prison term
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Ahorristas Estafados or AE; National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]; National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]; National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]; Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
CSN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS, ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador James SPALDING Hellmers
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
consulate(s) general: Kansas City, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
Ambassador James C. CASON
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion
mailing address: Unit 4711, APO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 213-728
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)
   Economy    Paraguay Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Landlocked Paraguay has a market economy marked by a large informal sector. This sector features both reexport of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain. A large percentage of the population derives its living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. The formal economy grew by an average of about 3% annually in 1995-97, but averaged near-zero growth in 1998-2001 and contracted by 2.3 percent in 2002, in response to regional contagion and an outbreak of hoof-and-mouth disease. On a per capita basis, real income has stagnated at 1980 levels. Most observers attribute Paraguay's poor economic performance to political uncertainty, corruption, lack of progress on structural reform, substantial internal and external debt, and deficient infrastructure. Aided by a firmer exchange rate and perhaps a greater confidence in the economic policy of the DUARTE FRUTOS administration, the economy rebounded between 2003 and 2005, posting modest growth each year.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$29.08 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$7.281 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.7% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 22.4%
industry: 20.7%
services: 56.9% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.68 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 45%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
32% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 0.5%
highest 10%: 43.8% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
56.8 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.8% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.334 billion
expenditures: $1.37 billion; including capital expenditures of $700 million (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), fruits, vegetables; beef, pork, eggs, milk; timber
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, metallurgic, electric power
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
51.29 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.528 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
44.17 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$255 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.13 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
soybeans, feed, cotton, meat, edible oils, electricity, wood, leather
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Uruguay 27.3%, Brazil 15.7%, Argentina 4.9%, Chile 4.6% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.832 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
road vehicles, consumer goods, tobacco, petroleum products, electrical machinery
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Brazil 27%, Argentina 21.3%, US 20.2%, China 9.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.297 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.45 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
guarani (PYG)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
guarani per US dollar - 6,178 (2005), 5,974.6 (2004), 6,424.3 (2003), 5,716.3 (2002), 4,105.9 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Paraguay Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
280,800 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,770,300 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: meager telephone service; principal switching center is in Asuncion
domestic: fair microwave radio relay network
international: country code - 595; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 46, FM 27, shortwave 6 (three inactive) (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
5 (2003)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.py
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,206 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
150,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Paraguay Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
880 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 12
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 868
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 324
under 914 m: 518 (2005)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 441 km
standard gauge: 441 km 1.435-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 29,500 km
paved: 14,986 km
unpaved: 14,514 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,100 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 20 ships (1000 GRT or over) 32,504 GRT/32,915 DWT
by type: cargo 15, livestock carrier 1, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Argentina 2)
registered in other countries: 1 (Ecuador 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion
   Military    Paraguay Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (includes Naval Aviation, River Defense Corps, Coast Guard), Air Force
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months for Army, 24 months for Navy (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,345,022
females age 18-49: 1,342,725 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,109,166
females age 18-49: 1,135,046 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 63,058
females age 18-49: 62,217 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$53.1 million (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.9% (2003 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Paraguay Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major illicit producer of cannabis, most or all of which is consumed in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile; transshipment country for Andean cocaine headed for Brazil, other Southern Cone markets, and Europe; corruption and some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; weak anti-money-laundering laws and enforcement

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook