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Flag of Norway
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62.00 N  10.00 E

Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Norway

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Norway Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.
   Geography    Norway Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
62 00 N, 10 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 324,220 sq km
land: 307,860 sq km
water: 16,360 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,542 km
border countries: Finland 727 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 196 km
Definition Field Listing
25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Definition Field Listing
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
Definition Field Listing
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.7%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.3% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,270 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
rockslides, avalanches
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
   People    Norway Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,610,820 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 19.3% (male 455,122/female 434,009)
15-64 years: 65.9% (male 1,542,439/female 1,496,745)
65 years and over: 14.8% (male 288,509/female 393,996) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.4 years
male: 37.6 years
female: 39.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.38% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.46 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3.67 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.03 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 79.54 years
male: 76.91 years
female: 82.31 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.78 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,100 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian, Sami 20,000
Definition Field Listing
Church of Norway 85.7%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1%, other Christian 2.4%, Muslim 1.8%, other 8.1% (2004)
Definition Field Listing
Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami is official in six municipalities
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%
   Government    Norway Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Dependent areas:
Definition Field Listing
Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Definition Field Listing
7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Definition Field Listing
17 May 1814; amended many times
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 October 2005)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
modified unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 September 2005 (next to be held September 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 32.7%, Progress Party 22.1%, Conservative Party 14.1%, Socialist Left Party 8.8%, Christian People's Party 6.8%, Center Party 6.5%, Liberal Party 5.9%, Red Electoral Alliance 1.2%, other 1.9%; seats by party - Labor Party 61, Progress Party 38, Conservative Party 23, Socialist Left Party 15, Christian People's Party 11, Center Party 11, Liberal Party 10
note: for certain purposes, the parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership to an upper house or Lagting
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Center Party [Aslaug Marie HAGA]; Christian People's Party [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Coastal Party [Roy WAAGE]; Conservative Party [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Carl I. HAGEN]; Red Electoral Alliance [Torstein DAHLE]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Knut VOLLEBAEK
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general: Houston, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ben K. WHITNEY
embassy: Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo; note - the embassy will move to Huseby in the near future
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] (22) 44 85 50
FAX: [47] (22) 44 33 63
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
   Economy    Norway Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state enterprises). The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on its oil production and international oil prices, with oil and gas accounting for one-third of exports. Only Saudi Arabia and Russia export more oil than Norway. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, it contributes sizably to the EU budget. The government has moved ahead with privatization. Norwegians worry about that time in the next two decades when the oil and gas will begin to run out; accordingly, Norway has been saving its oil-boosted budget surpluses in a Government Petroleum Fund, which is invested abroad and now is valued at more than $150 billion. After lackluster growth of 1% in 2002 and 0.5% in 2003, GDP growth picked up to 3.3% in 2004 and to 3.7% in 2005.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$194.1 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$246.9 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$42,300 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2.1%
industry: 41.5%
services: 56.4% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.4 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4%
industry: 22%
services: 74% (1995)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.6% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 21.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
25.8 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.6% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.7% of GDP (2005 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $176.1 billion
expenditures: $131.3 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50.1% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-0.5% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
105.6 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
106.1 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
5.6 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
13.5 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.22 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
257,200 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.466 million bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
88,870 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.859 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
73.4 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.14 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50.5 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.118 trillion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$49.49 billion (2005 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$111.2 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UK 24.3%, Germany 14.7%, France 9.2%, Netherlands 8.4%, US 6.9%, Sweden 6.7%, Canada 4.5% (2005)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$58.12 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Sweden 14.7%, Germany 14%, Denmark 7.7%, UK 7.2%, Netherlands 4.7%, US 4.7%, China 4.2%, Finland 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$46.99 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$281 billion; note - Norway is a net external creditor (30 June 2005)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $1.4 billion (1998)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian krone (NOK)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian kroner per US dollar - 6.4425 (2005), 6.7408 (2004), 7.0802 (2003), 7.9838 (2002), 8.9917 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Norway Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.228 million (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,163,400 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover, the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 4 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 5, FM at least 650, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
360 (plus 2,729 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,342,667 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.14 million (2005)
   Transportation    Norway Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 67
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 29 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 33
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 27 (2005)
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Definition Field Listing
condensate 411 km; gas 6,199 km; oil 2,213 km; oil/gas/water 746 km; unknown (oil/water) 38 km (2004)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4,077 km
standard gauge: 4,077 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2004)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 91,916 km
paved: 71,235 km (including 213 km of expressways)
unpaved: 20,681 km (2003)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,577 km (2002)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 694 ships (1000 GRT or over) 15,804,021 GRT/21,843,570 DWT
by type: barge carrier 4, bulk carrier 45, cargo 145, chemical tanker 142, combination ore/oil 16, container 2, liquefied gas 80, passenger/cargo 115, petroleum tanker 72, refrigerated cargo 6, roll on/roll off 21, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 44
foreign-owned: 161 (China 3, Cyprus 2, Denmark 31, Estonia 1, Finland 4, Germany 2, Hong Kong 50, Iceland 3, Italy 4, Japan 1, Lithuania 1, Monaco 3, Netherlands 3, Poland 3, Saudi Arabia 7, Singapore 4, Sweden 22, UK 4, US 13)
registered in other countries: 794 (Antigua and Barbuda 10, Australia 1, The Bahamas 258, Barbados 24, Bermuda 6, Brazil 2, Cambodia 1, Canada 1, Cayman Islands 2, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 14, Denmark 3, Dominica 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 4, Finland 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 3, Gibraltar 9, Hong Kong 22, Ireland 1, Isle of Man 23, Liberia 46, Malta 43, Marshall Islands 35, Mexico 1, Netherlands 6, Netherlands Antilles 2, Nigeria 1, Panama 57, Portugal 8, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 17, Singapore 96, Spain 7, Sweden 8, Thailand 30, Tonga 1, UK 40, US 2, unknown 3) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Borg Havn, Bergen, Mo i Rana, Molde, Mongstad, Narvik, Oslo, Sture
   Military    Norway Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret, RNoN; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 16 years of age for volunteers to the Home Guard; conscript service obligation - 12 months (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,014,592
females age 18-49: 982,734 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 827,016
females age 18-49: 801,358 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 29,179
females age 18-49: 28,023 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4,033,500,000 (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Norway Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite recent discussions, Russia and Norway continue to dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006

Source: CIA Factbook