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Nigeria

 
Flag of Nigeria
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Coordinates:
10.00 N  08.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Nigeria

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Nigeria Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The president faces the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, the OBASANJO administration must defuse longstanding ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability. Although the April 2003 elections were marred by some irregularities, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence.
   Geography    Nigeria Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
10 00 N, 8 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
853 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 33.02%
permanent crops: 3.14%
other: 63.84% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,820 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; flooding
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
   People    Nigeria Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
131,859,731
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 42.3% (male 28,089,017/female 27,665,212)
15-64 years: 54.6% (male 36,644,885/female 35,405,915)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 1,930,007/female 2,124,695) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18.7 years
male: 18.7 years
female: 18.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.38% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
40.43 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.94 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 97.14 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 104.05 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 90.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 47.08 years
male: 46.52 years
female: 47.66 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.49 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.6 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
310,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68%
male: 75.7%
female: 60.6% (2003 est.)
   Government    Nigeria Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Abuja; note - on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially transferred from Lagos to Abuja; most federal government offices have now moved to Abuja
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 October 1960 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
new constitution adopted May 1999
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law, Islamic Shariah law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 April 2003 (next to be held April 2007)
election results: Olusegun OBASANJO elected president; percent of vote - Olusegun OBASANJO (PDP) 61.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI (ANPP) 31.2%, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu OJUKWU (APGA) 3.3%, other 3.6%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral National Assembly consists of Senate (109 seats - 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 12 April 2003 (next to be held in 2007); House of Representatives - last held 12 April 2003 (next to be held in 2007)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 53.7%, ANPP 27.9%, AD 9.7%; seats by party - PDP 76, ANPP 27, AD 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 54.5%, ANPP 27.4%, AD 8.8%, other 9.3%; seats by party - PDP 223, ANPP 96, AD 34, other 6; note - one seat is vacant
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance for Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Don ETIEBET]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [disputed leadership]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Dr. Ahmadu ALI]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [disputed leadership]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Professor George A. OBIOZOR
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John CAMPBELL
embassy: 7 Mambilla Drive, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone: [234] (9) 523-0916/0906/5857/2235/2205
FAX: [234] (9) 523-0353
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
   Economy    Nigeria Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, is undertaking some reforms under a new reform-minded administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth - Nigeria is Africa's most populous country - and the country, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. In the last year the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003, the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. GDP rose strongly in 2005, based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a historic debt-relief deal that by March 2006 should eliminate $30 billion worth of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. The deal first requires that Nigeria repay roughly $12 billion in arrears to its bilateral creditors. Nigeria would then be allowed to buy back its remaining debt stock at a discount. The deal also commits Nigeria to more intensified IMF reviews.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$174.1 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$77.33 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.2% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 26.9%
industry: 48.7%
services: 24.4% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
57.21 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.9% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
60% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 40.8% (1996-97)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
50.6 (1996-97)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.5% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $12.86 billion
expenditures: $13.54 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.8% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.59 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.46 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
40 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.451 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
310,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36 billion bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.2 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.41 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.83 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.502 trillion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.597 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$52.16 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 49.2%, Brazil 9.5%, Spain 7.5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$25.95 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 10.5%, US 7.4%, UK 6.9%, Netherlands 6.2%, France 6% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$28.28 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$32.45 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
IMF, $250 million (1998)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
naira (NGN)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
nairas per US dollar - 132.59 (2005), 132.89 (2004), 129.22 (2003), 120.58 (2002), 111.23 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Nigeria Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,027,500 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,147,200 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: an inadequate system, further limited by poor maintenance; major expansion is required and a start has been made
domestic: intercity traffic is carried by coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, a domestic communications satellite system with 19 earth stations, and a coastal submarine cable; mobile cellular facilities and the Internet are available
international: country code - 234; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2002)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ng
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,535 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,769,700 (2005)
   Transportation    Nigeria Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
70 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 18 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
condensate 105 km; gas 1,896 km; oil 3,638 km; refined products 3,626 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,557 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge
standard gauge: 52 km 1.435-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 194,394 km
paved: 60,068 km
unpaved: 134,326 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 49 ships (1000 GRT or over) 263,452 GRT/452,012 DWT
by type: barge carrier 1, cargo 5, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 33, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 3 (Norway 1, Pakistan 1, Singapore 1)
registered in other countries: 26 (The Bahamas 2, Bermuda 10, Cambodia 2, Comoros 2, Panama 6, Seychelles 1, unknown 3) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos, Port Harcourt
   Military    Nigeria Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 26,802,678
females age 18-49: 25,668,446 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 15,052,914
females age 18-49: 13,860,806 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,353,180
females age 18-49: 1,329,267 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$737.6 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.8% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Nigeria Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
ICJ ruled in 2002 on the entire Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced with demarcation in less-contested sections of the boundary, starting in Lake Chad in the north; Nigeria initially rejected cession of the Bakassi Peninsula, then agreed, but has yet to withdraw its forces while much of the indigenous population opposes cession; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision, the unresolved Bakasi allocation, and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; a joint task force was established in 2004 that resolved disputes over and redrew the maritime and the 870-km land boundary with Benin on the Okpara River; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 200,000 - 250,000 (communal violence between Christians and Muslims since President OBASANJO's election in 1999) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; safehaven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; remains on Financial Action Task Force Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories List for continued failure to address deficiencies in money-laundering control regime

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook