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Mozambique

 
Flag of Mozambique
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Coordinates:
18.25 S  35.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Mozambique Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His newly elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, has promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment.
   Geography    Mozambique Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 801,590 sq km
land: 784,090 sq km
water: 17,500 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
2,470 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical to subtropical
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5.43%
permanent crops: 0.29%
other: 94.28% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,180 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
   People    Mozambique Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19,686,505
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 42.7% (male 4,229,802/female 4,177,235)
15-64 years: 54.5% (male 5,207,149/female 5,519,291)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 230,616/female 322,412) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18.3 years
male: 17.8 years
female: 18.8 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.38% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
35.18 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.35 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 129.24 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 134.31 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 124.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 39.82 years
male: 39.53 years
female: 40.13 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.62 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.2% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
110,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.8%
male: 63.5%
female: 32.7% (2003 est.)
   Government    Mozambique Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Maputo
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
30 November 1990
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 February 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held December 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 62%, RENAMO 29.7%; seats by party - FRELIMO 160, RENAMO 90
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
note: although the constitution provides for a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, president]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or RENAMO-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Armando PANGUENE
chancery: 1990 M Street NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Helen LA LIME
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (1) 492797
FAX: [258] (1) 490448
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
   Economy    Mozambique Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s although it returned to double digits in 2000-03. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. In late 2005, and after years of negotiations, the government signed an agreement to gain Portugal's majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$26.03 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$5.727 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1,300 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 26.2%
industry: 34.8%
services: 39% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.2 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
70% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
39.6 (1996-97)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.5% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.031 billion
expenditures: $1.93 billion (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.4% (2000)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.14 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.46 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
9.5 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
5.875 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
127.4 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$639 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.69 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Belgium 22.7%, South Africa 12.2%, Spain 11.2%, Netherlands 11%, Italy 10.1%, Germany 6.4% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.041 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 40.4%, Australia 7.5%, China 4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.051 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.456 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$632.8 million (2001)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
metical (MZM)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
meticais per US dollar - 23,061 (2005), 22,581 (2004), 23,782 (2003), 23,678 (2002), 20,704 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Mozambique Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
77,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
708,000 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fair system but not available generally (telephone density is only 16 telephones for each 1,000 persons)
domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.mz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,228 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
138,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Mozambique Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
158 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 136
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 34
under 914 m: 87 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 649 km; refined products 292 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,123 km
narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 30,400 km
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2002)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,964 GRT/5,324 DWT
by type: cargo 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Beira, Maputo, Nacala
   Military    Mozambique Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (FADM): Army Command, Navy (Marinha Mocambique, MM), Air and Air Defense Forces (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 3,793,373 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,751,223 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 185,314 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$78.03 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Mozambique Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
Southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook