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Mali

 
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Coordinates:
17.00 N  04.00 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Mali Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a coup that ushered in democratic government. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first democratic presidential election in 1992 and was reelected in 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, KONARE stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE.
   Geography    Mali Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, southwest of Algeria
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1.24 million sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 3.76%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 96.21% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,360 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
   People    Mali Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,716,829 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 48.2% (male 2,857,670/female 2,787,506)
15-64 years: 48.8% (male 2,804,344/female 2,910,097)
65 years and over: 3% (male 146,458/female 210,754) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 15.8 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.63% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
49.82 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.89 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-6.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 107.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 117.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 97.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 49 years
male: 47.05 years
female: 51.01 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.42 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
140,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria is a high risk in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.4%
male: 53.5%
female: 39.6% (2003 est.)
   Government    Mali Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Bamako
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 12 January 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Ousmane Issoufi MAIGA (since 30 April 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 12 May 2002 (next to be held May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE elected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%, Soumaila CISSE 35.6%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14 and 28 July 2002 (next to be held July 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Hope 2002 coalition 66, ADEMA 51, other 30
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE, party chairman]; Hope 2002, a coalition of CNID, MPR, RDT, and RPM; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Abdoulaye DIOP
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Vicki HUDDLESTONE
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] (2) 223-833
FAX: [223] (2) 223-712
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
   Economy    Mali Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert and with a highly unequal distribution of income. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export, along with gold. The government has continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2005. Worker remittances and external trade routes for the landlocked country have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$13.56 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$5.434 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1,200 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 45%
industry: 17%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.93 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.6% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
64% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 40.4% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
50.5 (1994)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5% (2002 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $764 million
expenditures: $828 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
820 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
762.6 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh; note - recent hydropower developments may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,250 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$323 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, gold, livestock
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
China 24.3%, Pakistan 12.9%, Thailand 8.4%, India 6.2%, Taiwan 5.2%, Italy 4.4% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.858 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 13.1%, Senegal 10.7%, Cote d'Ivoire 8.5% (2005)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.8 billion (2002)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$472.1 million (2002)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Mali Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
74,900 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
400,000 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: country code - 223; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1
note: the shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (plus repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ml
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
270 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Mali Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 8 (2005)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 729 km
narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 15,100 km
paved: 1,827 km
unpaved: 13,273 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,815 km (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Koulikoro
   Military    Mali Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Air Force, National Guard
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - two years (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 2,094,432
females age 18-49: 2,027,352 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,244,176
females age 18-49: 1,226,226 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$106.3 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Mali Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 6,185 (Mauritania) (2005)

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook