Home>>Country Information>>

Display this page in a new window                                 Bookmark this page
   
 

Moldova

 
Flag of Moldova
Click to enlarge
 

Coordinates:
47.00 N  29.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Moldova

Click to see on Google Maps

 

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Moldova Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Formerly part of Romania, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. The poorest nation in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its president in 2001.
   Geography    Moldova Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 00 N, 29 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 33,843 sq km
land: 33,371 sq km
water: 472 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,389 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 939 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
moderate winters, warm summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Dniester River 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 54.52%
permanent crops: 8.81%
other: 36.67% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
3,000 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
landslides (57 cases in 1998)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
   People    Moldova Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,466,706 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 20% (male 455,673/female 438,934)
15-64 years: 69.7% (male 1,498,078/female 1,613,489)
65 years and over: 10.3% (male 170,456/female 290,076) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 32.3 years
male: 30.3 years
female: 34.3 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.28% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.7 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12.64 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 38.38 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 41.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 35.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 65.65 years
male: 61.61 years
female: 69.88 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.85 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 300 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)
note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.6%
female: 98.7% (2003 est.)
   Government    Moldova Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: none
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic; Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Chisinau
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
32 raions (raioane, singular - raionul), 3 municipalities (municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
new constitution adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; replaced old Soviet constitution of 1979
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; Constitutional Court reviews legality of legislative acts and governmental decisions of resolution; accepts many UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) documents
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Vladimir VORONIN (since 4 April 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Vasile TARLEV (since 15 April 2001), First Deputy Prime Minister Zinaida GRECIANII (since 10 October 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 4 April 2005 (next to be held in 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president, upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister designated 15 April 2001, cabinet received a vote of confidence 19 April 2001
election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president; parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vasile TARLEV designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 75 of 101
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; parties and electoral blocs elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 6 March 2005 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 46.1%, Democratic Moldova Bloc 28.4%, PPCD 9.1%, other parties 16.4%; seats by party - PCRM 56, Democratic Moldova Bloc 34, PPCD 11
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Braghis Faction [Dumitru BRAGHIS]; Christian Democratic Popular Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN, first chairman]; Democratic Moldova Bloc (comprised of the AMN, Democratic Party, and PSL); Democratic Party [Dumitru DIACOV]; Our Moldova Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEANU]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Oleg SEREBRIAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Mihail MANOLI
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Heather M. HODGES
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 408-300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-30-44
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
same color scheme as Romania - three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized ox head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow
   Economy    Moldova Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991. As part of an ambitious reform effort after independence, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatization, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the IMF to promote growth and reduce poverty. The economy returned to positive growth in 2000, and has remained at or above 6% every year since. Further reforms will come slowly because of strong political forces backing government controls. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.175 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$2.416 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.1% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1,800 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 21.3%
industry: 23.3%
services: 55.5% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.34 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 40%
industry: 14%
services: 46% (1998)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8%; note - roughly 25% of working age Moldovans are employed abroad (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 30.7% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
36.2 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.9% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.069 billion
expenditures: $1.065 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
79.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
vegetables, fruits, wine, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.942 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.036 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
300 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
600 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.38 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.05 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$285 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.04 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 36%, Romania 8.7%, Italy 8%, Germany 7.1%, Ukraine 6.1%, France 6.1%, Belarus 5.5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.23 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles (2000)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Ukraine 19.9%, Russia 14.7%, Germany 10%, Romania 7.8%, Italy 6.3%, France 4.9%, Poland 4.7% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$597.5 million (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.986 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$100 million (2000)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Moldovan leu (MDL)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
lei per US dollar - 12.6 (2005), 12.33 (2004), 13.945 (2003), 13.571 (2002), 12.865 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Moldova Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
863,400 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
787,000 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: inadequate, outmoded, poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way
domestic: new subscribers face long wait for service; mobile cellular telephone service being introduced
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 7, FM 50, shortwave 3 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (plus 30 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.md
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30,861 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
406,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Moldova Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 606 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,138 km
broad gauge: 1,124 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 12,730 km
paved: 10,973 km
unpaved: 1,757 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
424 km (on Dniester River) (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 6 ships (1000 GRT or over) 11,425 GRT/12,185 DWT
by type: cargo 6
foreign-owned: 3 (Ukraine 3) (2005)
   Military    Moldova Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
National Army (includes Ground Forces, Rapid Reaction Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory military service; national service obligation - 12 months (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,066,459
females age 18-49: 1,117,070 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 693,913
females age 18-49: 911,568 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 43,729
females age 18-49: 42,354 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.7 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.4% (FY02)
   Transnational Issues    Moldova Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Moldova and Ukraine have established joint customs posts to monitor transit through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region which remains under OSCE supervision
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 1,000 (internal secessionist uprising in Transnistrian region in 1991) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook