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Luxembourg

 
Flag of Luxembourg
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Coordinates:
49.75 N  06.17 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Luxembourg Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
   Geography    Luxembourg Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
49 45 N, 6 10 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 23.94%
permanent crops: 0.39%
other: 75.67% (includes Belgium) (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
   People    Luxembourg Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
474,413 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18.9% (male 46,118/female 43,356)
15-64 years: 66.5% (male 159,498/female 156,075)
65 years and over: 14.6% (male 28,027/female 41,339) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.7 years
male: 37.7 years
female: 39.7 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.23% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.94 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.41 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4.74 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.73 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 78.89 years
male: 75.6 years
female: 82.38 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.78 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 500 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kosovo) and European (guest and resident workers)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
87% Roman Catholic, 13% Protestants, Jews, and Muslims (2000)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
   Government    Luxembourg Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Luxembourg
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1839 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
17 October 1868; occasional revisions
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 13 June 2004 (next to be held by June 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 36.1%, LSAP 23.4%, DP 16.1%, Green Party 11.6%, ADR 10%; seats by party - CSV 24, LSAP 14, DP 10, Green Party 7, ADR 5
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Action Committee for Democracy and Justice or ADR [Gast GIBERYEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV (also known as Christian Social Party or PCS) [Francois BILTGEN]; Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; Marxist and Reformed Communist Party dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left) [no formal leadership]; other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph WEYLAND
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ann WAGNER
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France
   Economy    Luxembourg Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
This stable, high-income economy - benefitting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 28% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for more than 30% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, has suffered from the global economic slump, the country enjoys an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks first in the world.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$30.74 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$31.76 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.7% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$55,600 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 1%
industry: 13%
services: 86% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
316,500 of whom 121,600 are foreign cross-border workers commuting primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 1%
industry: 13%
services: 86% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.5% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $9.195 billion
expenditures: $9.573 billion; including capital expenditures of $975.5 million (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wine, grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy products, livestock products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.5% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.203 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.14 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
2.346 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
5.287 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
55,700 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
634 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50,700 bbl/day (2001)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.205 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
867 million cu m (2001 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$13.39 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 21%, France 16.3%, Belgium 9.2%, UK 8.3%, Italy 7.5%, Spain 6.6%, Netherlands 4.3% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$18.74 billion c.i.f. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Belgium 28.2%, Germany 21.8%, China 12.8%, France 9.6%, Netherlands 5.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$279.1 million (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$NA
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $235.59 million (2004)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Luxembourg Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
360,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
539,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable
international: country code - 352; 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
5 (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.lu
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
70,465 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
270,800 (2005)
   Transportation    Luxembourg Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 155 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 274 km
standard gauge: 274 km 1.435-m gauge (262 km electrified) (2005)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5,210 km
paved: 5,210 km (including 147 km of expressways) (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37 km (on Moselle River) (2003)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 41 ships (1000 GRT or over) 509,517 GRT/517,644 DWT
by type: chemical tanker 15, container 6, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 11
foreign-owned: 41 (Belgium 15, Finland 3, France 9, Germany 8, Netherlands 3, US 3) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Mertert
   Military    Luxembourg Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
a 1967 law made the Army an all-volunteer force; 17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers under 18 are not deployed into combat or with peacekeeping missions (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 17-49: 110,867
females age 17-49: 108,758 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 17-49: 90,279
females age 17-49: 88,638 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 2,775
females age 17-49: 2,703 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$231.6 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.9% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Luxembourg Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook