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Lithuania

 
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Coordinates:
56.00 N  24.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Lithuania Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
   Geography    Lithuania Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
56 00 N, 24 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 65,200 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,612 km
border countries: Belarus 660 km, Latvia 576 km, Poland 103 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 273 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
90 km
Maritime claims:
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territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate:
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transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrain:
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lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Elevation extremes:
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lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines Kalnas 293.6 m
Natural resources:
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peat, arable land, amber
Land use:
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arable land: 44.81%
permanent crops: 0.9%
other: 54.29% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
70 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
   People    Lithuania Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,585,906 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 15.5% (male 284,888/female 270,458)
15-64 years: 69.1% (male 1,210,557/female 1,265,542)
65 years and over: 15.5% (male 190,496/female 363,965) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.2 years
male: 35.7 years
female: 40.8 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.3% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.75 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.98 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 6.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 74.2 years
male: 69.2 years
female: 79.49 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.2 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,300 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groups:
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Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2003 est.)
   Government    Lithuania Top of Page
Country name:
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conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:
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parliamentary democracy
Capital:
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Vilnius
Administrative divisions:
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10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania's independence)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 is the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Constitution:
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adopted 25 October 1992
Legal system:
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based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court
Suffrage:
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18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
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chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Gediminas KIRKILAS (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 and 27 June 2004 (next to be held June 2009); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%; Gediminas KIRKILAS approved by Parliament 85-13, with 5 abstentions
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats, 71 members are directly elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 and 24 October 2004 (next to be held October 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor 28.6%, Working for Lithuania (Social Democrats and Social Liberals) 20.7%, TS 14.6%, For Order and Justice (Liberal Democrats and Lithuanian People's Union) 11.4%, Liberal and Center Union 9.1%, Farmers and New Democracy Union 6.6%, other 9%; seats by faction - Labor 39, Homeland Union 26, Social Democrats 22, Social Liberals 10, Liberal Political Group 10, Farmers and New Democracy Union 10, Liberal Democrats 9, Liberal and Center Political Group 8, independents 7 (as of mid-April 2006)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI, chairman]; Farmer's and New Democracy Union [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE, chairman]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS, chairman]; Labor Party [Viktor USPASKICH, chairman]; Liberal and Center Political Group [Arturas ZUOKAS, chairman]; Liberal Democratic Party [Valentinas MAZURONIS, chairman]; Liberal Political Group; Lithuanian Christian Democrats or LKD [Valentinas STUNDYS, chairman]; Lithuanian People's Union for a Fair Lithuania; Lithuanian Social Democratic Coalition [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS, chairman] consists of the Lithuanian Democratic Labor Party or LDDP and the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP; Social Liberals (New Union) [Arturas PAULAUSKAS, chairman]; Social Union of Christian Conservatives [Gediminas VAGNORIUS, chairman]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Kornelija JURGAITIENE
chancery: 4590 MacArthur Boulevard NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen D. MULL
embassy: 2600 Akmenu 6, Vilnius
mailing address: American Embassy, Almeny gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red
   Economy    Lithuania Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Lithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia, has slowly rebounded from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. Unemployment dropped from 11% in 2003 to 5.3% in 2005. Growing domestic consumption and increased investment have furthered recovery. Trade has been increasingly oriented toward the West. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities, particularly in the energy sector, is nearing completion. Overall, more than 80% of enterprises have been privatized. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$49.21 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$23.5 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$13,700 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 5.5%
industry: 32.5%
services: 62% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.61 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 20%
industry: 30%
services: 50% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.8% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
31.9 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.7% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $8.429 billion
expenditures: $9.103 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.7% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.3% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.64 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.109 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
12.37 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
4.144 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12,360 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
89,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.03 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.76 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$1.771 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$10.95 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
mineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 10.4%, Latvia 10.2%, Germany 9.4%, France 7%, Estonia 5.9%, Poland 5.5%, Sweden 5%, US 4.7%, UK 4.7%, Denmark 4.3% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$13.33 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
mineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 27.9%, Germany 15.1%, Poland 8.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.816 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$12.5 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$228.5 million (1995)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
litas (LTL)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
litai per US dollar - 2.774 (2005), 2.7806 (2004), 3.0609 (2003), 3.677 (2002), 4 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Lithuania Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
820,000 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,421,500 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications
international: country code - 370; landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
27
note: Lithuania has approximately 27 broadcasting stations, but may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.lt
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
136,346 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
968,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Lithuania Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
95 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 33
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 19 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 62
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 56 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 1,696 km; oil 331 km; refined products 109 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,998 km
broad gauge: 1,807 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 169 km 0.750-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 78,893 km
paved: 21,617 km (including 417 km of expressways)
unpaved: 57,276 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
600 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 48 ships (1000 GRT or over) 338,565 GRT/339,238 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 18, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 12, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 11 (Denmark 11)
registered in other countries: 18 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, North Korea 1, Norway 1, Panama 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, unknown 4) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Klaipeda
   Military    Lithuania Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces, Naval Force, Lithuanian Military Air Forces, National Defense Volunteer Forces (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
19-45 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation - 12 months; 18 years of age for volunteers (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 19-49: 830,368
females age 19-49: 830,524 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 19-49: 590,606
females age 19-49: 676,102 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 29,689
females age 19-49: 28,543 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$230.8 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Lithuania Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Southwest Asia, Latin America, and Western Europe to Western Europe and Scandinavia; limited production of methamphetamine and ecstasy; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook