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Hungary

 
Flag of Hungary
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Coordinates:
47.00 N  20.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Hungary

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Hungary Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called "Goulash Communism." Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.
   Geography    Hungary Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 93,030 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
water: 690 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Terrain:
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mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes:
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lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 49.58%
permanent crops: 2.06%
other: 48.36% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,300 sq km (2003)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
the upgrading of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
   People    Hungary Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,981,334 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 15.6% (male 799,163/female 755,389)
15-64 years: 69.2% (male 3,403,375/female 3,505,640)
65 years and over: 15.2% (male 550,297/female 967,470) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 38.7 years
male: 36.3 years
female: 41.4 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.25% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.72 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.11 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8.39 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.09 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.66 years
male: 68.45 years
female: 77.14 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.32 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,800 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% (2001 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 51.9%, Calvinist 15.9%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic 2.6%, other Christian 1%, other or unspecified 11.1%, unaffiliated 14.5% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.5%
female: 99.3% (2003 est.)
   Government    Hungary Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
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Budapest
Administrative divisions:
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19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Saint Stephen's Day, 20 August
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949; revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
rule of law based on Western model; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Laszlo SOLYOM (since 5 August 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6-7 June 2005 (next to be held by June 2010); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 September 2004
election results: Laszlo SOLYOM elected president by a simple majority in the third round of voting, 185 to 182; Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 197 to 12
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 9 and 23 April 2006 (next to be held April 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - MSzP 43.2%, Fidesz-KDNP 42%, SzDSz 6.5%, MDF 5%, other 3.3%; seats by party - MSzP 190, Fidesz 141, KDNP 23, SzDSz 20, MDF 11, independent 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Istvan HILLER, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU (new member), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Andras SIMONYI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador George Herbert WALKER
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
   Economy    Hungary Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income one-half that of the Big Four European nations. Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and acceded to the EU in May 2004. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $60 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 and together with the Czech Republic holds the highest rating among the Central European transition economies; however, ratings agencies have expressed concerns over Hungary's unsustainable budget and current account deficits. Inflation has declined from 14% in 1998 to 3.7% in 2005. Unemployment has persisted around the 6% level, but Hungary's labor force participation rate of 57% is one of the lowest in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Germany is by far Hungary's largest economic partner. Policy challenges include cutting the public sector deficit to 3% of GDP by 2008, from about 6.5% in 2005, and orchestrating an orderly interest rate reduction without sparking capital outflows.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$162.6 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$106.4 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.1% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$16,300 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.7%
industry: 31.2%
services: 65.1% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.18 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 6.2%
industry: 27.1%
services: 66.7% (2002)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.2% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
8.6% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 20.5% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
24.4 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.6% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.1% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $51.4 billion
expenditures: $58.34 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
58.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.3% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
32.21 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36.96 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
7.1 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
14.1 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
43,920 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
134,100 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
47,180 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
136,600 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
110.7 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.94 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.58 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.587 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34.26 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$7.963 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$61.75 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 61.1%, other manufactures 28.7%, food products 6.5%, raw materials 2%, fuels and electricity 1.6% (2003)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 29.2%, Austria 6.4%, Italy 5.5%, France 4.9%, UK 4.7% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$64.83 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.7%, fuels and electricity 7.7%, food products 3.1%, raw materials 2.0% (2003)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 27.5%, Russia 7.2%, China 7%, Austria 6.7%, Italy 5%, France 4.7%, Netherlands 4.4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$18.59 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$66.22 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$4.2 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004-06)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
forint (HUF)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
forints per US dollar - 199.58 (2005), 202.75 (2004), 224.31 (2003), 257.89 (2002), 286.49 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Hungary Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,577,300 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,727,200 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.hu
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
261,294 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.05 million (2005)
   Transportation    Hungary Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
44 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 25
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 9 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
5 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 4,397 km; oil 990 km; refined products 335 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 7,937 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,682 km 1.435-m gauge (2,628 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 159,568 km
paved: 70,050 km (including 527 km of expressways)
unpaved: 89,518 km (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Budapest, Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Csepel, Baja, Mohacs (2003)
   Military    Hungary Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in June 2004 (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 2,303,116
females age 18-49: 2,265,463 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,780,513
females age 18-49: 1,864,580 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 63,847
females age 18-49: 61,037 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.75% (2002 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Hungary Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
in 2004, Hungary amended the status law extending special social and cultural benefits - and voted down a referendum to extend dual citizenship - to ethnic Hungarians living in neighboring states, which have objected to such measures; consultations continue between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Hungary must implement the strict Schengen border rules
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; improving, but remains vulnerable to money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook