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Croatia

 
Flag of Croatia
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Coordinates:
45.17 N  15.50 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Croatia

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Croatia Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.
   Geography    Croatia Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
45 10 N, 15 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 56,542 sq km
land: 56,414 sq km
water: 128 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia 241 km, Montenegro 25 km, Slovenia 670 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 25.82%
permanent crops: 2.19%
other: 71.99% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
110 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits
   People    Croatia Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,494,749 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16.2% (male 373,638/female 354,261)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,497,958/female 1,515,314)
65 years and over: 16.8% (male 288,480/female 465,098) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 40.3 years
male: 38.3 years
female: 42.1 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.03% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.61 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.48 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 6.72 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 74.68 years
male: 71.03 years
female: 78.53 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.4 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
200 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 10 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma) (2001 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 87.8%, Orthodox 4.4%, other Christian 0.4%, Muslim 1.3%, other and unspecified 0.9%, none 5.2% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated 2.9% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German) (2001 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.4%
female: 97.8% (2003 est.)
   Government    Croatia Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska
former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
presidential/parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Zagreb
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska Zupanija, Brodsko-Posavska Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska Zupanija, Istarska Zupanija, Karlovacka Zupanija, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija, Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija, Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska Zupanija, Osjecko-Baranjska Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija, Primorsko-Goranska Zupanija, Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija, Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija, Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija, Varazdinska Zupanija, Viroviticko-Podravska Zupanija, Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija, Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka Zupanija
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 8 October (1991); note - 25 June 1991 is the day the Croatian Parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, Parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted on 22 December 1990; revised 2000, 2001
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Ivo SANADER (since 9 December 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Jadranka KOSOR (since 23 December 2003) and Damir POLANCEC (since 15 February 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 16 January 2005 (next to be held January 2010); the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the Assembly
election results: Stjepan MESIC reelected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC 66%, Jadranka KOSOR (HDZ) 34% in the second round
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly or Sabor (152 seats; note - one seat was added in the November 2003 parliamentary elections; members elected from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 23 November 2003 (next to be held in 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; number of seats by party - HDZ 66, SDP 34, HSS 10, HNS 10, HSP 8, IDS 4, Libra 3, HSU 3, SDSS 3, other 11
note: minority government coalition - HDZ, DC, HSLS, HSU, SDSS
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Croatian Bloc or HB [Ivic PASALIC]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Anto KOVACEVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Josip FRISCIC]; Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Vladimir JORDAN]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC] (in 2005 party merged with Libra to become Croatian People's Party-Liberal Democrats or NS-LD [Vesna PUSIC]); Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Djurdja ADLESIC]; Croatian True Revival Party or HIP [Miroslav TUDJMAN]; Democratic Centre or DC [Vesna SKARE-OZBOLT]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT (observer), BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Neven JURICA
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph FRANK
embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)
   Economy    Croatia Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. The economy emerged from a mild recession in 2000 with tourism, banking, and public investments leading the way. Unemployment remains high, at about 18%, with structural factors slowing its decline. While macroeconomic stabilization has largely been achieved, structural reforms lag because of deep resistance on the part of the public and lack of strong support from politicians. Growth, while impressive at about 3% to 4% for the last several years, has been stimulated, in part, through high fiscal deficits and rapid credit growth. The EU accession process should accelerate fiscal and structural reform.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$55.76 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$34.94 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11,600 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 7%
industry: 30.8%
services: 62.2% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.71 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2.7%
industry: 32.8%
services: 64.5% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18% official rate; labor force surveys indicate unemployment around 14% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
11% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24.5% (2003 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
29 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.3% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $17.69 billion
expenditures: $19.35 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
49.7% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.1% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.15 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.81 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
550 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
5.99 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20,500 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
90,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
93.6 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.85 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.99 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.72 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$2.541 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$10.3 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 21.8%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 14.7%, Germany 10.7%, Slovenia 8.1%, Austria 7.3% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$18.93 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 15.9%, Germany 14.9%, Russia 9.1%, Slovenia 6.8%, Austria 5.8%, China 4.7%, France 4.2% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.8 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$30.62 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $166.5 million (2002)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
kuna (HRK)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
kuna per US dollar - 5.9473 (2005), 6.0358 (2004), 6.7035 (2003), 7.8687 (2002), 8.34 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Croatia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,887,600 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.553 million (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be included in the plan for the main trunk
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and Greece
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
36 (plus 321 repeaters) (September 1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.hr
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19,369 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.014 million (2003)
   Transportation    Croatia Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
68 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 23
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 9 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 37 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 1,340 km; oil 583 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,726 km
standard gauge: 2,726 km 1.435-m gauge (984 km electrified) (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 28,588 km
paved: 24,186 km (including 583 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,402 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
785 km (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 76 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,090,162 GRT/1,738,590 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 24, cargo 13, chemical tanker 2, passenger/cargo 27, petroleum tanker 5, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4
registered in other countries: 34 (The Bahamas 1, Cyprus 2, Liberia 6, Malta 11, Marshall Islands 2, Panama 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Omisalj, Ploce, Rijeka, Sibenik, Vukovar (on Danube)
   Military    Croatia Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM), Air and Air Defense Forces (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo i Protuzrakoplovna Obrana, HRZiPZO), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory military service, with six-month service obligation; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary service (December 2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,005,058
females age 18-49: 1,008,511 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 725,914
females age 18-49: 823,611 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 29,020
females age 18-49: 27,897 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$620 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.39% (2002 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Croatia Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
discussions continue with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains un-ratified and in dispute; as a European Union peripheral state, neighboring Slovenia must conform to the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
IDPs: 12,600 (Croats and Serbs displaced in 1992-95 war) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook