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Ghana

 
Flag of Ghana
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Coordinates:
08.00 N  02.00 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Ghana Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and a ban on political parties. A new constitution, restoring multiparty politics, was approved in 1992. Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS, head of state since 1981, won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR, who defeated former Vice President Atta MILLS in a free and fair election, succeeded him.
   Geography    Ghana Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
8 00 N, 2 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 239,460 sq km
land: 230,940 sq km
water: 8,520 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,094 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
539 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 17.54%
permanent crops: 9.22%
other: 73.24% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
310 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
   People    Ghana Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22,409,572
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 38.8% (male 4,395,744/female 4,288,720)
15-64 years: 57.7% (male 6,450,828/female 6,483,781)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 371,428/female 419,071) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 19.9 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20.1 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.07% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30.52 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.72 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 55.02 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 59.56 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 58.87 years
male: 58.07 years
female: 59.69 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.99 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
350,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
black African 98.5% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%, Gurma 3%, Yoruba 1%), European and other 1.5% (1998)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 63%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 21%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.8%
male: 82.7%
female: 67.1% (2003 est.)
   Government    Ghana Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Accra
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
6 March 1957 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
approved 28 April 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008)
election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR reelected president in election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 53.4%, John Atta MILLS 43.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament (230 seats; note - increased from 200 seats in last election; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP 128, NDC 92, other 10
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Convention People's Party or CPP [Nii Noi DOWUONA, general secretary]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA, chairman]; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTY]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Samuel Arthur ODOI-SYKES]; People's Convention Party or PCP [P. K. DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman]; People's Heritage Party or PHP [Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward MAHAMA]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU, general secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Fritz Kwabena POKU
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Carlin YATES
embassy: 6th and 10th Lanes, 798/1 Osu, Accra
mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] (21) 775-347, 775-348
FAX: [233] (21) 701-813
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
   Economy    Ghana Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 34% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, but was included in a G-8 debt relief program decided upon at the Gleneagles Summit in July 2005. Priorities under its current $38 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) include tighter monetary and fiscal policies, accelerated privatization, and improvement of social services. Receipts from the gold sector helped sustain GDP growth in 2005 along with record high prices for Ghana's largest cocoa crop to date. Inflation should ease but remains a major internal problem. Ghana also remains a candidate country to benefit from Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) funding that could assist in transforming Ghana's agricultural export sector. A final decision on its MCC bid is expected in spring 2006.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$54.45 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$9.413 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.3% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2,500 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 36.6%
industry: 24.6%
services: 38.7% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.62 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 60%
industry: 15%
services: 25% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
31.4% (1992 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 30.1% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
30 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.1% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $3.216 billion
expenditures: $3.506 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
75.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.8% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.356 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.081 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
400 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
500 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,433 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
39,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.255 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.79 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$790 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.911 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Netherlands 12.8%, UK 8.2%, US 6.5%, Belgium 6%, France 5.5%, Germany 4.5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.273 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Nigeria 14%, China 12.5%, US 6.2%, UK 5.5%, Netherlands 4.2%, South Africa 4.2% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.897 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.999 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$6.9 billion (1999)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
cedi (GHC)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
cedis per US dollar - 9,072.5 (2005), 9,004.6 (2004), 8,677.4 (2003), 7,932.7 (2002), 7,170.8 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Ghana Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
313,300 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.695 million (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: poor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed
international: country code - 233; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 49, shortwave 3 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
10 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.gh
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
384 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
368,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Ghana Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
refined products 74 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 953 km
narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 47,787 km
paved: 8,563 km
unpaved: 39,224 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,293 km
note: 168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 6,308 GRT/9,418 DWT
by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2
foreign-owned: 1 (Brazil 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Takoradi, Tema
   Military    Ghana Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory and volunteer military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 4,808,451
females age 18-49: 4,762,459 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 3,011,081
females age 18-49: 2,991,551 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 251,056
females age 18-49: 247,777 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$83.65 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.8% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Ghana Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked in the cocoa plantations and escaped fighting in Cote d'Ivoire
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 40,853 (Liberia) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook