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Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
(overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)

 
Flag of Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
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Coordinates:
51.75 S  59.00 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Although first sighted by an English navigator in 1592, the first landing (English) did not occur until almost a century later in 1690, and the first settlement (French) was not established until 1764. The colony was turned over to Spain two years later and the islands have since been the subject of a territorial dispute, first between Britain and Spain, then between Britain and Argentina. The UK asserted its claim to the islands by establishing a naval garrison there in 1833. Argentina invaded the islands on 2 April 1982. The British responded with an expeditionary force that landed seven weeks later and after fierce fighting forced Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982.
   Geography    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of southern Argentina
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
51 45 S, 59 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 12,173 sq km
land: 12,173 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,288 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; average annual rainfall is 24 inches in Stanley; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but does not accumulate
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish, squid, wildlife, calcified seaweed, sphagnum moss
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (99% permanent pastures, 1% other) (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
strong winds persist throughout the year
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
overfishing by unlicensed vessels is a problem; reindeer were introduced to the islands in 2001 for commercial reasons; this is the only commercial reindeer herd in the world unaffected by the Chornobyl disaster
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors; short growing season
   People    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,967 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.44% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA deaths/1,000 population
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
NA migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA children born/woman
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Falkland Islander(s)
adjective: Falkland Island
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
British
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
NA
   Government    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Dependency status:
Definition Field Listing
overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Stanley
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
3 October 1985; amended 1997 and 1998
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
English common law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor Howard PEARCE (since 3 December 2002); Chief Executive Chris SIMPKINS (since March 2003); Financial Secretary Derek F. HOWATT (since NA)
cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative Council, two ex officio members (chief executive and the financial secretary), and the governor
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats - two ex officio, eight elected by popular vote, members serve four-year terms); presided over by the governor
elections: last held 17 November 2005 (next to be held November 2009)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 8
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (chief justice is a nonresident); Magistrates Court (senior magistrate presides over civil and criminal divisions); Court of Summary Jurisdiction
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
none; all independents
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
none
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ICFTU, UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising was once the major economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT
   Economy    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The economy was formerly based on agriculture, mainly sheep farming, but today fishing contributes the bulk of economic activity. In 1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers operating within the Falkland Islands' exclusive fishing zone. These license fees total more than $40 million per year, which goes to support the island's health, education, and welfare system. Squid accounts for 75% of the fish taken. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. The islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day; to date, no exploitable site has been identified. An agreement between Argentina and the UK in 1995 seeks to defuse licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest in exploiting potential oil reserves. Tourism, especially eco-tourism, is increasing rapidly, with about 30,000 visitors in 2001. Another large source of income is interest paid on money the government has in the bank. The British military presence also provides a sizeable economic boost.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$75 million (2002 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
NA
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$25,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 95%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,100 (est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 95% (mostly sheepherding and fishing)
industry and services: 5%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
full employment; labor shortage (2001)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.6% (1998)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $66.2 million
expenditures: $67.9 million; including capital expenditures of $23.2 million (FY98/99 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
fodder and vegetable crops; sheep, dairy products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
fish and wool processing; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.23 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.68 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
200 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$125 million (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
wool, hides, meat
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Spain 81.5%, US 6%, UK 4.5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$90 million (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
fuel, food and drink, building materials, clothing
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UK 72.5%, US 14.7%, Netherlands 8.3% (2005)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$NA
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$0 (1997 est.)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Falkland pound (FKP)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Falkland pounds per US dollar - 0.55 (2005), 0.5462 (2004), 0.6125 (2003), 0.6672 (2002), 0.6947 (2001)
note: the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,400 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands
international: country code - 500; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 7, shortwave 0
note: British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) provides Radio 1 (FM) and Radio 2 (AM) service (2006)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
2 (British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) provides multi-channel satellite service to members of UK Forces as well as islanders)
note: cable television is available in Stanley (2006)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.fk
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
103 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,900 (2002)
   Transportation    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2005)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 440 km
paved: 50 km
unpaved: 390 km (2003)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Stanley
   Military    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
no regular military forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
defense is the responsibility of the UK
   Transnational Issues    Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Argentina, which claims the islands in its constitution and briefly occupied them by force in 1982, agreed in 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook