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Fiji

 
Flag of Fiji
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Coordinates:
18.00 S  175.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Fiji

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Fiji Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Fiji became independent in 1970, after nearly a century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987, caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). The coups and a 1990 constitution that cemented native Melanesian control of Fiji, led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. A new constitution enacted in 1997 was more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo-Fijian, but a civilian-led coup in May 2000 ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held in August 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government led by Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE.
   Geography    Fiji Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
18 00 S, 175 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Oceania
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 18,270 sq km
land: 18,270 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
1,129 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains of volcanic origin
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 10.95%
permanent crops: 4.65%
other: 84.4% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
30 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
includes 332 islands; approximately 110 are inhabited
   People    Fiji Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
905,949 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 31.1% (male 143,847/female 138,061)
15-64 years: 64.6% (male 293,072/female 292,312)
65 years and over: 4.3% (male 17,583/female 21,074) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24.6 years
male: 24.1 years
female: 25 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.4% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.55 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.65 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-2.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 69.82 years
male: 67.32 years
female: 72.45 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.73 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
600 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Fijian(s)
adjective: Fijian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Fijian 51% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indian 44%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5% (1998 est.)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a Muslim minority
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.7%
male: 95.5%
female: 91.9% (2003 est.)
   Government    Fiji Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands
conventional short form: Fiji
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Suva (Viti Levu)
Administrative divisions:
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4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
10 October 1970 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, second Monday of October (1970)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
enacted on 25 July 1997 to encourage multiculturalism and make multiparty government mandatory; effective 28 July 1998
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on British system
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda (since 18 July 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE (since 10 September 2000)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president; election last held 8 March 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: Ratu Josefa ILOILOVATU Uluivuda elected president by the Great Council of Chiefs; percent of vote - NA
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (32 seats; 14 appointed by the president on the advice of the Great Council of Chiefs, 9 appointed by the president on the advice of the Prime Minister, 8 on the advice of the Opposition Leader, and 1 appointed on the advice of the council of Rotuma) and the House of Representatives (71 seats; 23 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 19 reserved for ethnic Indians, 3 reserved for other ethnic groups, 1 reserved for the council of Rotuma constituency encompassing the whole of Fiji, and 25 open seats; members serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 25 August through 1 September and 19 September 2001 (next to be held 6-13 May 2006)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - SDL 27.5%, FLP 26.5%, MV 4.2%, NLUP 1.3%, NFP 1.2%, independents 1.4%, UGP .3%; seats by party - SDL 32, FLP 27, MV 6, NLUP 2, NFP 1, independents 2, UGP 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; High Court; Magistrates' Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Conservative Alliance Party/Matanitu Vanua or CAMV [Ratu Josefa DIMURI]; Dodonu Ni Taukei Party or DNT [Fereti S. DEWA]; Fiji Democratic Party or FDP [Filipe BOLE] (a merger of the Christian Democrat Alliance or VLV [Poesci Waqalevu BUNE], Fijian Association Party or FAP, Fijian Political Party or SVT (primarily Fijian) [Sitiveni RABUKA], and New Labor Unity Party or NLUP [Ofa SWANN]); Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]; General Voters Party or GVP (became part of United General Party); Girmit Heritage Party or GHP; Justice and Freedom Party or AIM; Lio 'On Famor Rotuma Party or LFR; National Federation Party or NFP (primarily Indian) [Pramond RAE]; Nationalist Vanua Takolavo Party or NVTLP [Saula TELAWA]; Party of National Unity or PANU [Ponipate LESAVUA]; Party of the Truth or POTT; United Fiji Party/Sogosogo Duavata ni Lewenivanua or SDL [Laisenia QARASE]; United General Party or UGP [Millis Mick BEDDOES]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AsDB, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jesoni VITUSAGAVULU
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 240, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1996
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Larry Miles DINGER
embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone: [679] 331-4466
FAX: [679] 330-0081
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove
   Economy    Fiji Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports, remittances from Fijians working abroad, and a growing tourist industry - with 300,000 to 400,000 tourists annually - are the major sources of foreign exchange. Fiji's sugar has special access to European Union markets, but will be harmed by the EU's decision to cut sugar subsidies. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity but is not efficient. Long-term problems include low investment, uncertain land ownership rights, and the government's ability to manage its budget. Yet, because of a tourist boom, short-run economic prospects are good, provided tensions do not again erupt between indigenous Fijians and Indo-Fijians. Overseas remittances from Fijians working in Kuwait and Iraq have increased significantly.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.38 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$1.937 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.7% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6,000 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 16.6%
industry: 22.4%
services: 61% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
137,000 (1999)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 70%
industry and services: 30% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.6% (1999)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
25.5% (1990-91)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.6% (2002 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $427.9 million
expenditures: $531.4 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
775.7 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
721.4 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$862 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses, coconut oil
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 18.7%, Australia 17.6%, UK 12%, Samoa 7.3%, Japan 4.9% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.235 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore 26.9%, Australia 23.1%, NZ 19.6%, Thailand 4.4% (2005)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$188.1 million (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$40.3 million (1995)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Fijian dollar (FJD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Fijian dollars per US dollar - 1.691 (2005), 1.7331 (2004), 1.8958 (2003), 2.1869 (2002), 2.2766 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Fiji Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
102,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
109,900 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center
domestic: NA
international: country code - 679; access to important cable links between US and Canada as well as between NZ and Australia; 2 satellite earth stations - 2 INMARSAT (Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 13, FM 40, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.fj
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,722 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
61,000 (2004)
   Transportation    Fiji Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
28 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 18 (2005)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 597 km
narrow gauge: 597 km 0.600-m gauge
note: belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation; used to haul sugarcane during harvest season (May to December) (2003)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,440 km
paved: 1,692 km
unpaved: 1,748 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
203 km
note: 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges (2004)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 15,867 GRT/8,432 DWT
by type: passenger 3, passenger/cargo 2, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 1 (Australia 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Lambasa, Lautoka, Suva
   Military    Fiji Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF): Land Forces, Naval Division (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 215,104
females age 18-49: 212,739 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 163,960
females age 18-49: 178,714 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 9,266
females age 18-49: 8,916 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$36 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.2% (FY02)
   Transnational Issues    Fiji Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook