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Czech Republic

 
Flag of Czech Republic
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Coordinates:
49.75 N  15.50 E

 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Czech Republic Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II, a truncated Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.
   Geography    Czech Republic Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
49 45 N, 15 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 78,866 sq km
land: 77,276 sq km
water: 1,590 sq km
Area - comparative:
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slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,881 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km, Slovakia 215 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
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temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain:
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Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Elevation extremes:
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lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 38.82%
permanent crops: 3%
other: 58.18% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
240 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
flooding
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe
   People    Czech Republic Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,235,455 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 14.4% (male 755,098/female 714,703)
15-64 years: 71.2% (male 3,656,021/female 3,629,036)
65 years and over: 14.5% (male 576,264/female 904,333) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 39.3 years
male: 37.5 years
female: 41.1 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.06% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.02 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.59 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3.89 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.24 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 76.22 years
male: 72.94 years
female: 79.69 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.21 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,500 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 10 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
Ethnic groups:
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Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, other 4% (2001 census)
Religions:
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Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%, unaffiliated 59% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Czech
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: NA
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
   Government    Czech Republic Top of Page
Country name:
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conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local long form: Ceska Republika
local short form: Ceska Republika
Government type:
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parliamentary democracy
Capital:
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Prague
Administrative divisions:
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13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky Kraj, Jihomoravsky Kraj, Karlovarsky Kraj, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Liberecky Kraj, Moravskoslezsky Kraj, Olomoucky Kraj, Pardubicky Kraj, Plzensky Kraj, Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky Kraj, Ustecky Kraj, Vysocina, Zlinsky Kraj
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Czech Founding Day, 28 October (1918)
Constitution:
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ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003)
note: the Czech Republic's first president Vaclav HAVEL stepped down from office on 2 February 2003 having served exactly 10 years; parliament finally elected a successor on 28 February 2003 after two inconclusive elections in January 2003
head of government: Prime Minister Jiri PAROUBEK (since 25 April 2005), Deputy Prime Ministers Zdenek SKROMACH (since 4 August 2004), Jiri HAVEL (since 2 January 2006), Pavel NEMEC (since 4 August 2004), Milan SIMONOVSKY (since 4 August 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last successful election held 28 February 2003 (after earlier elections held 15 and 24 January 2003 were inconclusive; next election to be held January 2008); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vaclav KLAUS elected president on 28 February 2003; Vaclav KLAUS 142 votes, Jan SOKOL 124 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in two rounds 5-6 November and 12-13 November 2004 (next to be held November 2006); Chamber of Deputies - last held 2-3 June 2006 (next to be held by June 2010)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ODS 37, KDU-CSL 14, Open Democracy 13, CSSD 7, Caucus Open Democracy 7, independents 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - ODS 35.4%, CSSD 32.3%, KSCM 12.8%, KDU-CSL 7.2%, Greens 6.3%, other 6%; seats by party - ODS 81, CSSD 74, KSCM 26, KDU-CSL 13, Greens 6
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Association of Independent Candidates or SNK [Josef ZIELENIEC, chairman]; Caucus Open Democracy; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's Party or KDU-CSL [Miroslav KALOUSEK, chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Jirina NOVAKOVA, chairwoman]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Mirek TOPOLANEK, chairman]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP, chairman]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Bohuslav SOBOTKA, acting chairman]; European Democrats [Jan KASL]; Freedom Union-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Pavel NEMEC, chairman]; Green Party [Martin BURSIK, chairman]; Independent Democrats (NEZDEM) [Vladimir ZELEZNY, chairman]; Open Democracy; Party of Open Society (SOS) [Pavel NOVACEK, chairman]; Path of Change [Jiri LOBKOWITZ, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Bohemian and Moravian Trade Union Confederation [Milan STECH]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Petr KOLAR
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador William J. CABANISS
embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [420] (2) 5753-0663
FAX: [420] (2) 5753-0920
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)
   Economy    Czech Republic Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The Czech Republic is one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Growth in 2000-05 was supported by exports to the EU, primarily to Germany, and a strong recovery of foreign and domestic investment. Domestic demand is playing an ever more important role in underpinning growth as interest rates drop and the availability of credit cards and mortgages increases. Current account deficits of around 5% of GDP are beginning to decline as demand for Czech products in the European Union increases. Inflation is under control. Recent accession to the EU gives further impetus and direction to structural reform. In early 2004 the government passed increases in the Value Added Tax (VAT) and tightened eligibility for social benefits with the intention to bring the public finance gap down to 4% of GDP by 2006, but more difficult pension and healthcare reforms will have to wait until after the next elections. Privatization of the state-owned telecommunications firm Cesky Telecom took place in 2005. Intensified restructuring among large enterprises, improvements in the financial sector, and effective use of available EU funds should strengthen output growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$199.4 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$109.4 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$19,500 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.4%
industry: 39.3%
services: 57.3% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.27 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4%
industry: 38%
services: 58% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.9% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.3%
highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
25.4 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $48.16 billion
expenditures: $53.04 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
metallurgy, machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, glass, armaments
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.3% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
78.18 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
56.5 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
26.3 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
10.1 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12,380 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
185,200 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26,670 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
192,300 bbl/day (2001)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.25 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
133 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.623 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.521 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.964 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$2.496 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$78.37 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment 52%, chemicals 5%, raw materials and fuel 9% (2003)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 33.5%, Slovakia 8.7%, Austria 5.5%, Poland 5.5%, France 5.3%, UK 4.6%, Italy 4.3% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$76.59 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment 46%, raw materials and fuels 15%, chemicals 10% (2003)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 30%, Russia 5.7%, Slovakia 5.4%, China 5.1%, Poland 5%, Italy 4.8%, France 4.5%, Netherlands 4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$29.36 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$49.14 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$2.4 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004-06)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Czech koruna (CZK)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
koruny per US dollar - 23.957 (2005), 25.7 (2004), 28.209 (2003), 32.739 (2002), 38.035 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Czech Republic Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,427,700 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,782,600 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; growth in the use of mobile cellular telephones is particularly vigorous
domestic: 86% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 31, FM 304, shortwave 17 (2000)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
150 (plus 1,434 repeaters) (2000)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.cz
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
819,773 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.8 million (2005)
   Transportation    Czech Republic Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
121 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 17 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 77
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 49 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 7,020 km; oil 547 km; refined products 94 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 9,543 km
standard gauge: 9,421 km 1.435-m gauge (2,893 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 122 km 0.760-m gauge (23 km electrified) (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 127,672 km
paved: 127,672 km (including 518 km of expressways) (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
664 km (principally on Elbe as well as Vltava and Oder rivers) (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
registered in other countries: 2 (Malta 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem
   Military    Czech Republic Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army of the Czech Republic (ACR): Joint Forces Command (includes Air Forces), Support and Training Forces Command (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18-50 years of age for voluntary military service; on-going transformation of military service into a fully professional, all-volunteer force no longer dependent on conscription began in January 2004 and is scheduled to be completed by 2007 (2005)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 2,414,728
females age 18-49: 2,329,412 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,996,631
females age 18-49: 1,923,508 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 66,583
females age 18-49: 63,363 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.17 billion (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.81% FY05
   Transnational Issues    Czech Republic Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
in February 2005, the ICJ refused to rule on the restitution of Liechtenstein's land and property assets in the Czech Republic confiscated in 1945 as German property; individual Sudeten Germans seek restitution for property confiscated in connection with their expulsion from Czechoslovakia after World War II; Austrian anti-nuclear activists have revived blockades of the Czech-Austrian border to protest operation of the Temelin nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook