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Ethiopia

 
Flag of Ethiopia
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Coordinates:
08.00 N  38.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Ethiopia

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Ethiopia Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of the 1936-41 Italian occupation during World War II. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990's ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. Final demarcation of the boundary is currently on hold due to Ethiopian objections to an international commission's finding requiring it to surrender territory considered sensitive to Ethiopia.
   Geography    Ethiopia Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Africa, west of Somalia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
8 00 N, 38 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,127,127 sq km
land: 1,119,683 sq km
water: 7,444 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,328 km
border countries: Djibouti 349 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 1,606 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Denakil Depression -125 m
highest point: Ras Dejen 4,620 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 10.01%
permanent crops: 0.65%
other: 89.34% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,900 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean
   People    Ethiopia Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
74,777,981
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 43.7% (male 16,373,718/female 16,280,766)
15-64 years: 53.6% (male 19,999,482/female 20,077,014)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 929,349/female 1,117,652) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17.8 years
male: 17.7 years
female: 17.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.31% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
37.98 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.86 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees residing in Sudan is expected to continue for several years; some Sudanese, Somali, and Eritrean refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return to their homes (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 93.62 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 103.43 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 83.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 49.03 years
male: 47.86 years
female: 50.24 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.22 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
120,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and hepatitis E
vectorborne diseases: malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis are high risks in some locations
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%, other 3%-8%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromigna, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in schools)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.7%
male: 50.3%
female: 35.1% (2003 est.)
   Government    Ethiopia Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation: FDRE
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Addis Ababa
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 ethnically-based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
ratified December 1994, effective 22 August 1995
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
currently transitional mix of national and regional courts
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994 constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections: president elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 October 2001 (next to be held October 2007); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections
election results: GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 100%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation or upper chamber (108 seats; members are chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or lower chamber (547 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 15 May 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: percent of vote - NA%; seats by party - EPRDF 327, CUD 109, UEDF 52, SPDP 23, OFDM 11, BGPDUF 8, ANDP 8, independent 1, others 6, undeclared 2
note: irregularities at some polling stations necessitated the rescheduling of voting in certain constituencies
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front or BGPDUF [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition for Unity and Democracy or CUD [HAILU Shawel]; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi] (an alliance of Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM, Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO, the South Ethiopean People's Democratic Front or SEPDF, and TigrAyan Peoples' Liberation Front or TPLF); Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement or GNDM; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM [BULCHA Demeksa]; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP; United Ethopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]; dozens of small parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Afar Revolutionary Democratic Union Front or ARDUF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]; Oromo National Liberation Front or ONLF
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador KASSAHUN Ayele
chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Vicki HUDDLESTON
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] (1) 517-4000
FAX: [251] (1) 517-4888
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors
   Economy    Ethiopia Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Ethiopia's poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture, accounting for half of GDP, 60% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with exports of some $156 million in 2002, but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qat to supplement income. The war with Eritrea in 1998-2000 and recurrent drought have buffeted the economy, in particular coffee production. In November 2001, Ethiopia qualified for debt relief from the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, and in December 2005 the International Monetary Fund voted to forgive Ethiopia's debt to the body. Under Ethiopia's land tenure system, the government owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans. Drought struck again late in 2002, leading to a 2% decline in GDP in 2003. Normal weather patterns late in 2003 helped agricultural and GDP growth recover in 2004-05.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$62.88 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$8.819 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 47.5%
industry: 9.9%
services: 42.6% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 80%
industry: 8%
services: 12% (1985)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
50% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 33.7% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
30 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.6% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.338 billion
expenditures: $2.88 billion; including capital expenditures of $788 million (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, qat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.7% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.058 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.914 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
214,000 bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$844 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$612 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, qat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 66.9%, Djibouti 4.3%, Germany 3.5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.722 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Saudi Arabia 26.2%, US 14.6%, China 8.1%, Italy 5.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.226 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.101 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$308 million (FY00/01)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
birr (ETB)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
birr per US dollar - 8.68 (2005), 8.6356 (2004), 8.5997 (2003), 8.5678 (2002), 8.4575 (2001)
note: since 24 October 2001 exchange rates are determined on a daily basis via interbank transactions regulated by the Central Bank
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
8 July - 7 July
   Communications    Ethiopia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
435,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
178,000 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: adequate for government use
domestic: open-wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the national trunk service
international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 8, FM 0, shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 plus 24 repeaters (2002)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.et
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
87 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
113,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Ethiopia Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
82 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 68
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 22 (2005)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge
note: railway under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 33,856 km
paved: 4,367 km
unpaved: 29,489 km (2003)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 79,441 GRT/97,669 DWT
by type: cargo 6, roll on/roll off 2 (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Ethiopia is landlocked and has used ports of Assab and Massawa in Eritrea and port of Djibouti
   Military    Ethiopia Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Air Force
note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities remained in Eritrean possession
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 14,568,277
females age 18-49: 14,482,885 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 8,072,755
females age 18-49: 7,902,660 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 803,777
females age 18-49: 801,789 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$295.9 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.4% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Ethiopia Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but mutual animosities, accusations, and armed posturing prevail, preventing demarcation despite international intervention; Ethiopia refuses to withdraw to the delimited boundary until technical errors made by the EEBC that ignored "human geography" are addressed, including the award of Badme, the focus of the 1998-2000 war; Eritrea insists that the EEBC decision be implemented immediately without modifications; Ethiopia has only an administrative line and no international border with the Oromo region of southern Somalia where it maintains alliances with local clans in opposition to the unrecognized Somali Interim Government in Mogadishu; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Sudan have been delayed by civil war
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 90,451 (Sudan) 16,470 (Somalia) 8,719 (Eritrea)
IDPs: 132,000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000 and ethnic clashes in Gambela; most IDPs are in Tigray and Gambela Provinces) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook