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El Salvador

 
Flag of El Salvador
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Coordinates:
13.83 N  88.92 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of El Salvador

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    El Salvador Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.
   Geography    El Salvador Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
13 50 N, 88 55 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 21,040 sq km
land: 20,720 sq km
water: 320 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 545 km
border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
307 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 31.37%
permanent crops: 11.88%
other: 56.75% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
450 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea
   People    El Salvador Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6,822,378 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 36.3% (male 1,265,080/female 1,212,216)
15-64 years: 58.5% (male 1,900,372/female 2,092,251)
65 years and over: 5.2% (male 156,292/female 196,167) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 21.8 years
male: 20.7 years
female: 22.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.72% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26.61 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.78 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-3.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 24.39 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 27.27 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 71.49 years
male: 67.88 years
female: 75.28 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.12 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.7% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
29,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mestizo 90%, white 9%, Amerindian 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 83%, other 17%
note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 80.2%
male: 82.8%
female: 77.7% (2003 est.)
   Government    El Salvador Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
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San Salvador
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, Usulutan
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:
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23 December 1983
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil and Roman law with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (since 1 June 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma DE ESCOBAR (since 1 June 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (since 1 June 2004); Vice President Ana Vilma DE ESCOBAR (since 1 June 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held 21 March 2004 (next to be held March 2009)
election results: Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez elected president; percent of vote - Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez (ARENA) 57.7%, Schafik HANDAL (FMLN) 35.6%, Hector SILVA (CDU-PDC) 3.9%, other 2.8%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 12 March 2006 (next to be held in March 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ARENA 34, FMLN 32, PCN 10, PDC 6, CD 2
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo PARKER, secretary general]; Democratic Convergence or CD (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU) [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ, coordinator general]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ ZEPEDA, president]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Elias Antonio SACA Gonzalez]; Popular Social Christian Party or PPSC [Rene AGUILUZ]; Revolutionary Democratic Front or FDR [Julio Cesar HERNANDEZ Carcamo, coordinator general]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Rene Antonio LEON Rodriguez
chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671
FAX: [1] (202) 234-3834
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Elizabeth (New Jersey), Houston, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, New York (2), Nogales (Arizona), Santa Ana (California), San Francisco, Washington, DC
consulate(s): Boston
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador H. Douglas BARCLAY
embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena Sur, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023
telephone: [503] 2278-4444
FAX: [503] 2278-5522
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band
   Economy    El Salvador Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The smallest country in Central America, El Salvador has the third largest economy, but growth has been minimal in recent years. Hoping to stimulate the sluggish economy, the government is striving to open new export markets, encourage foreign investment, and modernize the tax and healthcare systems. Implementation in 2006 of the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement, which El Salvador was the first to ratify, is viewed as a key policy to help achieve these objectives. The trade deficit has been offset by annual remittances from Salvadorans living abroad - 16.6% of GDP in 2005 - and external aid. With the adoption of the US dollar as its currency in 2001, El Salvador has lost control over monetary policy and must concentrate on maintaining a disciplined fiscal policy.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$31.24 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$16.52 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.8% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4,700 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 9.9%
industry: 30.2%
services: 59.9% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.81 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 17.1%
industry: 17.1%
services: 65.8% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.5% official rate; but the economy has much underemployment (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
36.1% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 39.3% (2001)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
52.5 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.7% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $2.84 billion
expenditures: $3.167 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
46.7% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products; shrimp
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.5% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.158 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.45 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
91 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
473 million kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
40,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$778 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.586 billion (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, shrimp, textiles, chemicals, electricity
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 54.3%, Guatemala 13.4%, Honduras 7.2%, Nicaragua 4.5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.678 billion (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 32.6%, Guatemala 9.7%, Mexico 7.2%, Venezuela 4.9% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.833 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.087 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$125 million of which, $53 million from US (2003)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
US dollar (USD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
the US dollar became El Salvador's currency in 2001
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    El Salvador Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
887,800 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,832,600 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 61 (plus 24 repeaters), FM 30, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
5 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.sv
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,404 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
587,500 (2005)
   Transportation    El Salvador Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
76 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 72
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 56 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 283 km
narrow gauge: 283 km 0.914-m gauge
note: length of operational route reduced from 562 km to 283 km by disuse and lack of maintenance (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 10,029 km
paved: 1,986 km
unpaved: 8,043 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
Rio Lempa partially navigable (2004)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco
   Military    El Salvador Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (FNES), Air Force (FAS)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory military service, with 12-month service obligation; 16 years of age for volunteers (2002)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,391,278
females age 18-49: 1,542,323 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 960,315
females age 18-49: 1,310,466 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 70,286
females age 18-49: 69,526 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$161.7 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    El Salvador Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
in 1992, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary, but despite Organization of American States (OAS) intervention and a further ICJ ruling in 2003, full demarcation of the border remains stalled; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ decision, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of marijuana produced for local consumption; domestic cocaine abuse on the rise

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook