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Ecuador

 
Flag of Ecuador
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Coordinates:
02.00 S  77.50 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Ecuador

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Ecuador Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 25 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period has been marred by political instability. Seven presidents have governed Ecuador since 1996.
   Geography    Ecuador Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
2 00 S, 77 30 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 283,560 sq km
land: 276,840 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Nevada
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
2,237 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 100 nm from 2,500 meter isobath
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 5.71%
permanent crops: 4.81%
other: 89.48% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
8,650 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world
   People    Ecuador Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13,547,510 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 33% (male 2,281,499/female 2,195,551)
15-64 years: 61.9% (male 4,178,653/female 4,210,766)
65 years and over: 5% (male 319,719/female 361,322) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 23.6 years
male: 23.1 years
female: 24 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.5% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.29 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-3.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 22.87 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 27.42 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 76.42 years
male: 73.55 years
female: 79.43 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.68 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,700 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 65%, Amerindian 25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.5%
male: 94%
female: 91% (2003 est.)
   Government    Ecuador Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Quito
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
22 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
24 May 1822 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
10 August 1998
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Alfredo PALACIO (since 20 April 2005); Vice President Nicanor Alejandro SERRANO Aguilar (since 5 May 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; former President Lucio GUTIERREZ was removed from office by congress effective 20 April 2005
head of government: President Alfredo PALACIO (since 20 April 2005); Vice President Nicanor Alejandro SERRANO Aguilar (since 5 May 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: the president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 20 October 2002; runoff election held 24 November 2002 (next to be held October 2006)
election results: results of the 24 November 2002 runoff election - Lucio GUTIERREZ elected president; percent of vote - Lucio GUTIERREZ 54.3%; Alvaro NOBOA 45.7%; note - Vice President Alfredo PALACIO assumed the presidency on 20 April 2005 after congress removed Lucio GUTIERREZ from office
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (100 seats; members are popularly elected by province to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 October 2002 (next to be held October 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSC 25, ID 16, PRE 15, PRIAN 10, PSP 9, Pachakutik Movement 6, MPD 5, DP 4, PS-FA 3, independents 7; note - defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (according to the Constitution, new justices are elected by the full Supreme Court; in December 2004, however, Congress successfully replaced the entire court via a simple-majority resolution)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM]; Democratic Left or ID [Guillermo LANDAZURI]; National Action Institutional Renewal Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]; Pachakutik Movement [Gilberto TALAHUA]; Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]; Popular Democracy or DP [Dr. Juan Manuel FUERTES]; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Gustavo TERAN Acosta]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]; Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz, director]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Leon FEBRES CORDERO]; Socialist Party - Broad Front or PS-FA [Victor GRANDA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Luis MACAS, president]; Coordinator of Social Movements or CMS [F. Napoleon SANTOS]; Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Marco MURILLO, president]; National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Pedro DE LA CRUZ, president]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
CAN, CSN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Benigno GALLEGOS Chiriboga
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
FAX: [1] (202) 667-3482
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Jersey City (New Jersey), Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Linda J. JEWELL
embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address: APO AA 34039
telephone: [593] (2) 256-2890
FAX: [593] (2) 250-2052
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia, which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms
   Economy    Ecuador Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Ecuador has substantial petroleum resources, which have accounted for 40% of the country's export earnings and one-third of central government budget revenues in recent years. Consequently, fluctuations in world market prices can have a substantial domestic impact. In the late 1990s, Ecuador suffered its worst economic crisis, with natural disasters and sharp declines in world petroleum prices driving Ecuador's economy into free fall in 1999. Real GDP contracted by more than 6%, with poverty worsening significantly. The banking system also collapsed, and Ecuador defaulted on its external debt later that year. The currency depreciated by some 70% in 1999, and, on the brink of hyperinflation, the MAHAUD government announced it would dollarize the economy. A coup, however, ousted MAHAUD from office in January 2000, and after a short-lived junta failed to garner military support, Vice President Gustavo NOBOA took over the presidency. In March 2000, Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided the framework for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and growth returned to its pre-crisis levels in the years that followed. Under the administration of Lucio GUTIERREZ - January 2003 to April 2005 - Ecuador benefited from higher world petroleum prices. However, the government under Alfredo PALACIO has reversed economic reforms that reduced Ecuador's vulnerability to petroleum price swings and financial crises, allowing the central government greater access to oil windfalls and disbursing surplus retirement funds.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$56.9 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$30.7 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4,300 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 7%
industry: 31.2%
services: 61.8% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.6 million (urban) (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 8%
industry: 24%
services: 68% (2001)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.7% official rate; but underemployment of 47% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
41% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 32%
note: data for urban households only (October 2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
42
note: data are for urban households (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.1% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $8.822 billion
expenditures: planned $8.153 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
40.1% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.1% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.27 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.55 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
65 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
140 million kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
493,200 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
155,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
387,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.512 billion bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.769 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$566 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9.224 billion (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 47.2%, Panama 10.9%, Peru 7.4% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.436 billion (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
vehicles, medicinal products, telecommunications equipment, electricity
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 22.2%, Colombia 13.5%, Venezuela 7.2%, Brazil 6.2%, China 5.2%, Mexico 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.148 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$18.09 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$216 million (2002)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
US dollar (USD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
25,000 (2005), 25,000 (2004), 25,000 (2003), 25,000 (2002), 25,000 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Ecuador Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,612,300 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,544,200 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: generally elementary but being expanded
domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
international: country code - 593; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 392, FM 35, shortwave 29 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
7 (plus 14 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ec
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16,217 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
624,600 (2005)
   Transportation    Ecuador Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
285 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 85
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 30
under 914 m: 29 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 200
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 169 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
extra heavy crude 578 km; gas 71 km; oil 1,386 km; refined products 1,185 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 966 km
narrow gauge: 966 km 1.067-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 43,197 km
paved: 7,287 km
unpaved: 35,910 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 30 ships (1000 GRT or over) 181,513 GRT/297,003 DWT
by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger 7, petroleum tanker 20, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Germany 1, Paraguay 1)
registered in other countries: 1 (Georgia 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar
   Military    Ecuador Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age for conscript military service; 12-month service obligation (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 20-49: 2,792,770
females age 20-49: 2,849,519 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 20-49: 2,338,428
females age 20-49: 2,380,327 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 133,922
females age 20-49: 129,758 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$650 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Ecuador Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border and caused over 20,000 refugees to flee into Ecuador in 2004
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 8,270 (Colombia) (2005)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook