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Djibouti

 
Flag of Djibouti
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Coordinates:
11.50 N  43.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Djibouti Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve as president until 1999. Unrest among the Afars minority during the 1990s led to a civil war that ended in 2001 following the conclusion of a peace accord between Afar rebels and the Issa-dominated government. In 1999, Djibouti's first multi-party presidential elections resulted in the election of Ismail Omar GUELLEH; he was re-elected to a second and final term in 2005. Djibouti occupies a strategic geographic location at the mouth of the Red Sea and serves as an important transshipment location for goods entering and leaving the east African highlands. The present leadership favors close ties to France, which maintains a significant military presence in the country, but is also developing stronger ties with the US. Djibouti hosts the only US military base in sub-Saharan Africa and is a front-line state in the global war on terrorism.
   Geography    Djibouti Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
11 30 N, 43 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 23,000 sq km
land: 22,980 sq km
water: 20 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 516 km
border countries: Eritrea 109 km, Ethiopia 349 km, Somalia 58 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
314 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
desert; torrid, dry
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m
highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
geothermal areas, gold, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, diatomite, gypsum, pumice, petroleum
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 0.04%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.96% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
inadequate supplies of potable water; limited arable land; desertification; endangered species
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa
   People    Djibouti Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
486,530 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 43.3% (male 105,760/female 105,068)
15-64 years: 53.3% (male 135,119/female 124,367)
65 years and over: 3.3% (male 8,183/female 8,033) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 18.2 years
male: 18.7 years
female: 17.7 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.02% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
39.53 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.31 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 102.44 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 110.07 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 94.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 43.17 years
male: 41.86 years
female: 44.52 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.31 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,100 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
690 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian 5%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.9%
male: 78%
female: 58.4% (2003 est.)
   Government    Djibouti Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Djibouti
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); 'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
27 June 1977 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
multiparty constitution approved by referendum 4 September 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal adult
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Dileita DILEITA (since 4 March 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 April 2005 (next to be held by April 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH 100%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
elections: last held 10 January 2003 (next to be held January 2008)
election results: percent of vote - RPP 62.2%, FRUD 36.9%; seats - RPP 65, FRUD 0; note - RPP (the ruling party) dominated the election
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]; Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]; Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]; People's Progress Assembly or RPP (governing party) [Ismail Omar GUELLEH]; Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH]; Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD [Ahmed Dini AHMED]; Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Union for Presidential Majority UMP (coalition includes RPP, FRUD, PPSD and PND); Union for Democratic Changeover or UAD (opposition coalition includes ARD, MRDD, UDJ, and PDD) [Ahmed Dini AHMED]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE Olhaye
chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Marguerita RAGSDALE
embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone: [253] 35 39 95
FAX: [253] 35 39 40
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center
   Economy    Djibouti Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in the capital city; the remainder are mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. Djibouti has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of at least 50% continues to be a major problem. While inflation is not a concern, due to the fixed tie of the Djiboutian franc to the US dollar, the artificially high value of the Djiboutian franc adversely affects Djibouti's balance of payments. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last seven years because of recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees). Faced with a multitude of economic difficulties, the government has fallen in arrears on long-term external debt and has been struggling to meet the stipulations of foreign aid donors.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$619 million (2002 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
NA
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.5% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.5%
industry: 15.8%
services: 80.7% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
282,000 (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
50% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2% (2002 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $135 million
expenditures: $182 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels, animal hides
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
construction, agricultural processing, salt
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (1996 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
240 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
223.2 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$250 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Somalia 64.2%, Yemen 22.7%, Ethiopia 5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$987 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Saudi Arabia 20.9%, India 12.5%, Ethiopia 11.9%, China 10.5%, France 4.7%, US 4.5%, Japan 4.4% (2005)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$366 million (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$36 million (2001)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Djiboutian franc (DJF)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Djiboutian francs per US dollar - 177.72 (2005), 177.72 (2004), 177.72 (2003), 177.72 (2002), 177.72 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Djibouti Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11,100 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
34,500 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country
domestic: microwave radio relay network
international: country code - 253; submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseille, Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.dj
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
506 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Djibouti Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 3 (2005)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 100 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway)
narrow gauge: 100 km 1.000-m gauge
note: railway under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 2,890 km
paved: 364 km
unpaved: 2,526 km (1999)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
by type: cargo 1 (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Djibouti
   Military    Djibouti Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air Force)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (est.); no conscription (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 95,328
females age 18-49: 87,795 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 46,020
females age 18-49: 42,181 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$29.05 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.3% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Djibouti Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia; thousands of Somali refugees await repatriation in UNHCR camps in Djibouti
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 17,331 (Somalia) (2005)

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook