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Chad

 
Flag of Chad
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Coordinates:
15.00 N  19.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Chad

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Chad Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which sporadically flares up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005 new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and have made probing attacks into eastern Chad. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits.
   Geography    Chad Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Africa, south of Libya
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
15 00 N, 19 00 E
Map references:
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Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
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none (landlocked)
Climate:
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tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain:
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broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Elevation extremes:
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lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.8%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 97.18% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
300 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
   People    Chad Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9,944,201 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 47.9% (male 2,396,393/female 2,369,261)
15-64 years: 49.3% (male 2,355,940/female 2,550,535)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 107,665/female 164,407) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16 years
male: 15.3 years
female: 16.6 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.93% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
45.73 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.38 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 91.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 100.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 82.43 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 47.52 years
male: 45.88 years
female: 49.21 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.25 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.8% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
200,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
200 distinct groups; in the north and center: Arabs, Gorane (Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim; in the south: Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moundang, Moussei, Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist; about 1,000 French citizens live in Chad
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 51%, Christian 35%, animist 7%, other 7%
Languages:
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French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Literacy:
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 47.5%
male: 56%
female: 39.3% (2003 est.)
   Government    Chad Top of Page
Country name:
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conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad
local short form: Tchad
Government type:
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republic
Capital:
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N'Djamena
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
note: instead of 14 prefectures, there may be a new administrative structure of 28 departments (departments, singular - department) and 1 city*; Assongha, Baguirmi, Bahr El Gazal, Bahr Koh, Batha Oriental, Batha Occidental, Biltine, Borkou, Dababa, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer Lamis, Kabia, Kanem, Lac, Lac Iro, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Dallah, Monts de Lam, N'Djamena*, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile Oriental, Tandjile Occidental, Tibesti
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
11 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Pascal YOADIMNADJI (since 3 February 2005)
cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 3 May 2006 (next to be held by May 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%, Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a June 2005 national referendum altered the constitution removing presidential term limits and permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run for reelection
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral according to constitution, consists of a National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and a Senate (not yet created and size unspecified, members to serve six-year terms, one-third of membership renewable every two years)
elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be held by April 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, URD 5, UNDR 3, other 11
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR [Jean ALINGUE]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Adam BECHIR
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Marc WALL
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] (51) 70-09
FAX: [235] (51) 56-54
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
   Economy    Chad Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. Over 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1 billion barrels - in southern Chad. The nation's total oil reserves has been estimated to be 2 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$14.79 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$4.799 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1,500 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 33.5%
industry: 25.9%
services: 40.6% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
industry and services: 20%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $765.2 million
expenditures: $653.3 million; including capital expenditures of $146 million (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, beer brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% (1995)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
120 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
111.6 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
225,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,450 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$602 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.016 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, cattle, gum arabic, oil
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 82%, China 10.4%, Portugal 2.8% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$749.1 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
France 21.5%, Cameroon 16.4%, US 12.3%, Belgium 5.6%, Portugal 4.7%, Netherlands 4.5%, Saudi Arabia 4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$297 million (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.5 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$238.3 million received; note - $125 million committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African Development Bank; ODA $246.9 million (2003 est.)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Chad Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13,000 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
210,000 (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: primitive system
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2002)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.td
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
60,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Chad Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
51 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 44
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 9 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
oil 205 km (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 33,400 km
paved: 267 km
unpaved: 33,133 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season (2002)
   Military    Chad Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale Tchadienne, ANT), Air Force, Gendarmerie (2004)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age for conscripts, with three-year service obligation; 18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a guardian; women are subject to one year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 20-49: 1,527,580
females age 20-49: 1,629,510 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 20-49: 794,988
females age 20-49: 849,500 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 94,536
females age 20-49: 93,521 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$68.95 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Chad Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
since the expulsions of residents from Darfur in 2003 by Janjawid armed militia and Sudanese military, about 200,000 refugees remain in eastern Chad; Chad remains an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions with Sudan arising from cross-border banditry; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 224,924 (Sudan), 29,683 (Central African Republic) (2005)

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook