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Cambodia

 
Flag of Cambodia
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Coordinates:
13.00 N  105.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Cambodia

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Cambodia Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863. Cambodia became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war. The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a ceasefire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the remaining leaders are awaiting trial by a UN-sponsored tribunal for crimes against humanity. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed.
   Geography    Cambodia Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
13 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Oklahoma
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
443 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil and gas, timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 20.44%
permanent crops: 0.59%
other: 78.97% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,700 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap
   People    Cambodia Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13,881,427
note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 35.6% (male 2,497,595/female 2,447,754)
15-64 years: 61% (male 4,094,946/female 4,370,159)
65 years and over: 3.4% (male 180,432/female 290,541) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 20.6 years
male: 19.9 years
female: 21.4 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.78% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26.9 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.06 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 68.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 77.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 59.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 59.29 years
male: 57.35 years
female: 61.32 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.37 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.6% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
170,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis are high risks in some locations
note: at present, H5N1 avian influenza poses a minimal risk; during outbreaks among birds, rare cases could occur among US citizens who have close contact with infected birds or poultry (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.6%
male: 84.7%
female: 64.1% (2004 est.)
   Government    Cambodia Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic pronunciation)
local short form: Kampuchea
former: Kingdom of Cambodia, Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Phnom Penh
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
20 provinces (khaitt, singular and plural) and 4 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural)
provinces: Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Krachen, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean Cheay, Pouthisat, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
municipalities: Keb, Pailin, Phnum Penh, Preah Seihanu
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
9 November 1953 (from France)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
promulgated 21 September 1993
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing influence of common law in recent years; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985) and Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992); SOK AN, LU LAY SRENG, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (since 16 July 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers in theory appointed by the monarch; in practice named by the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition is named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the king
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral, consists of the National Assembly (123 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (61 seats; 2 members appointed by the monarch, 2 elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by parliamentarians and commune councils; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 27 July 2003 (next to be held in July 2008); Senate - last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 47%, SRP 22%, FUNCINPEC 21%, other 10%; seats by party - CPP 73, FUNCINPEC 26, SRP 24; Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 69%, FUNCINPEC 21%, SRP 10%; seats by party - CPP 45, FUNCINPEC 10, SRP 2 (January 2006)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Council of the Magistracy (provided for in the constitution and formed in December 1997); Supreme Court (and lower courts) exercises judicial authority
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Cambodian Pracheachon Party (Cambodian People's Party) or CPP [CHEA SIM]; National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [NHEK BUNCHHAY]; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP [SAM RANGSI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, EAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador EK SEREYWATH
chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph A. MUSSOMELI
embassy: 1, Street 96, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
FAX: [855] (23) 216-437/811
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band; only national flag to incorporate an actual building in its design
   Economy    Cambodia Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
In 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, the government made progress on economic reforms. The US and Cambodia signed a Bilateral Textile Agreement, which gave Cambodia a guaranteed quota of US textile imports and established a bonus for improving working conditions and enforcing Cambodian labor laws and international labor standards in the industry. From 2001 to 2004, the economy grew at an average rate of 6.4%, driven largely by an expansion in the garment sector and tourism. With the January 2005 expiration of a WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, Cambodia-based textile producers were forced to compete directly with lower-priced producing countries such as China and India. Although initial 2005 GDP growth estimates were less than 3%, better-than-expected garment sector performance led the IMF to forecast 6% growth in 2005. Faced with the possibility that its vibrant garment industry, with more than 200,000 jobs, could be in serious danger, the Cambodian government has committed itself to a policy of continued support for high labor standards in an attempt to maintain favor with buyers. The tourism industry continues to grow rapidly, with foreign visitors surpassing 1 million for the year by September 2005. In 2005, exploitable oil and natural gas deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorial waters, representing a new revenue stream for the government once commercial extraction begins in the coming years. The long-term development of the economy remains a daunting challenge. The Cambodian government continues to work with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs. In December 2004, official donors pledged $504 million in aid for 2005 on the condition that the Cambodian government implement steps to reduce corruption. The major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance. More than 50% of the population is 20 years or younger. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure. Fully 75% of the population remains engaged in subsistence farming.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$30.65 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$4.729 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2,200 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 35%
industry: 30%
services: 35% (2004)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 75%
industry: NA%
services: NA% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.5% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
40% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 33.8% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
40 (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.8% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $559.4 million
expenditures: $772 million; including capital expenditures of $291 million (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, tapioca
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
tourism, garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
123.7 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
115 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,700 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$166 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.663 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 59.7%, Germany 10.4%, Vietnam 4.7%, UK 4.6% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.538 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Thailand 24.6%, China 14.4%, Hong Kong 13.4%, Vietnam 11.3%, Taiwan 8.7%, Singapore 8.1%, South Korea 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.145 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$800 million (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$504 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2005 by international donors
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
riel (KHR)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
riels per US dollar - 4,092.5 (2005), 4,016.25 (2004), 3,973.33 (2003), 3,912.08 (2002), 3,916.33 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Cambodia Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
36,400 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
498,400 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas
domestic: NA
international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 17 (2003)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
11 (including two TV relay stations with French and Vietnamese broadcasts); 12 regional low power TV stations (2006)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.kh
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,315 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
41,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Cambodia Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
2 (2005)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 602 km
narrow gauge: 602 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 12,323 km
paved: 1,996 km
unpaved: 10,327 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,400 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 521 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,715,914 GRT/2,421,241 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo 423, chemical tanker 10, container 12, livestock carrier 3, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 9, refrigerated cargo 16, roll on/roll off 5, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 284 (Bulgaria 1, Canada 6, China 75, Cyprus 15, Egypt 6, Estonia 2, France 1, Gabon 1, Germany 1, Greece 7, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 1, Israel 1, Japan 2, South Korea 18, Latvia 1, Lebanon 1, Nigeria 2, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Russia 73, Singapore 4, Syria 11, Taiwan 2, Turkey 17, Ukraine 12, UAE 2, US 6, Yemen 2, unknown 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Phnom Penh
   Military    Cambodia Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18-30 years of age for compulsory military service for all males; conscription law passed September 2004; service obligation is 18 months (September 2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 3,002,718
females age 18-49: 3,108,254 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,955,141
females age 18-49: 2,048,611 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 175,497
females age 18-49: 172,788 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$112 million (FY01 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (FY01 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Cambodia Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary with missing boundary markers and Thai encroachments into Cambodian territory; maritime boundary with Vietnam is hampered by unresolved dispute over offshore islands; Cambodia accuses Thailand of obstructing access to Preah Vihear temple ruins awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962; in 2004, Cambodian-Laotian and Laotian-Vietnamese boundary commissions re-erected missing markers completing most of their demarcations
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; possible small-scale heroin and methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook