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Burundi

 
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Coordinates:
03.50 S  30.00 E

 

 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Burundi Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. Over 200,000 Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that led to an integrated defense force, established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005. The new government, led by President Pierre NKURUNZIZA, faces many challenges, particularly from the country's last rebel group who remains outside of the peace process and continue attacks in the western provinces of Burundi.
   Geography    Burundi Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
3 30 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,650 sq km
water: 2,180 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 974 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Heha 2,670 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 35.57%
permanent crops: 13.12%
other: 51.31% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
210 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
flooding, landslides, drought
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
   People    Burundi Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,090,068
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 46.3% (male 1,884,825/female 1,863,200)
15-64 years: 51.1% (male 2,051,451/female 2,082,017)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 83,432/female 125,143) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16.6 years
male: 16.4 years
female: 16.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.7% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
42.22 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.46 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 63.13 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 70.26 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 55.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 50.81 years
male: 50.07 years
female: 51.58 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.55 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
250,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2005)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.6%
male: 58.5%
female: 45.2% (2003 est.)
   Government    Burundi Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi
former: Urundi
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Bujumbura
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
17 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rurale, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
28 February 2005; ratified by popular referendum
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
NA years of age; universal adult
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Martin NDUWIMANA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2005); Second Vice President Alice NZOMUKUNDA - Hutu (since 29 August 2005)
head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Martin NDUWIMANA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2005); Second Vice paresident Alice NZOMUKUNDA - Hutu (since 29 August 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
elections: the president is elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); note - the constitution adopted in February 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected by a two-thirds majority of the parliament; vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament
election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA was elected president by the parliament by a vote of 151 to 9; note - the constitution adopted in February 2005 permits the post-transition president to be elected by a two-thirds majority of the legislature
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Parlement, consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (minimum 100 seats - 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi with at least 30% being women; additional seats appointed by a National Independent Electoral Commission to ensure ethnic representation; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and a Senate (54 seats; 34 by indirect vote to serve five year terms, with remaining seats assigned to ethnic groups and former chiefs of state)
elections: National Assembly - last held 4 July 2005 (next to be held in 2010); Senate - last held 29 July 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CNDD-FDD 58.6%, FRODEBU 21.7%, UPRONA 7.2%, CNDD 4.1%, MRC-Rurenzangemero 2.1%, others 6.2%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 59, FRODEBU 25, UPRONA 10, CNDD 4, MRC-Rurenzangemero 2; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 30, FRODEBU 3, CNDD 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; Constitutional Court; Courts of Appeal (there are three in separate locations); Tribunals of First Instance (17 at the province level and 123 small local tribunals)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
the three national, mainstream, governing parties are: Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA, president]; National Council for the Defense of Democracy, Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Hussein RADJABU, president]; Unity for National Progress or UPRONA [Aloys RUBUKA, president]
note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD; National Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI]; Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Party for the Liberation of the Hutu People - National Liberation Front (Palipehutu - FNL); note - as of December 2005, the only insurgent group still fighting the government
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine NTAMOBWA
chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia Newton MOLLER
embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] 223454
FAX: [257] 222926
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and fly side) with a white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above, two stars below)
   Economy    Burundi Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural with more than 90% of the population dependent on subsistence agriculture. Economic growth depends on coffee and tea exports, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability to pay for imports, therefore, rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. The Tutsi minority, 14% of the population, dominates the government and the coffee trade at the expense of the Hutu majority, 85% of the population. An ethnic-based war that lasted for over a decade resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in 10 adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply. Political stability and the end of the civil war have improved aid flows and economic activity has increased, but underlying weaknesses - a high poverty rate, poor education rates, a weak legal system, and low administrative capacity - risk undermining planned economic reforms.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5.654 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$730 million (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.1% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$700 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 46.3%
industry: 20.3%
services: 33.4% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.99 million (2002)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 93.6%
industry: 2.3%
services: 4.1% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
68% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 32.9% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
33.3 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $215.4 million
expenditures: $278 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18% (2001)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
141.3 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
141.4 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
10 million kWh; note - supplied by the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$29 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$52 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 26.2%, Belgium 11.4%, Netherlands 8.7%, US 4.9%, Pakistan 4.5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$200 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Kenya 13.5%, Tanzania 11%, Belgium 10.4%, Italy 8.8%, Uganda 5.5%, France 5.4%, China 5%, Germany 4.6% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$105 million (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.2 billion (2003)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$105.5 million (2003)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Burundi franc (BIF)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Burundi francs per US dollar - 1,138 (2005), 1,100.91 (2004), 1,082.62 (2003), 930.75 (2002), 830.35 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Burundi Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23,900 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
153,000 (2005)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: primitive system
domestic: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relay
international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bi
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
155 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Burundi Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2005)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 14,480 km
paved: 1,028 km
unpaved: 13,452 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
mainly on Lake Tanganyika (2003)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Bujumbura
   Military    Burundi Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
National Defense Force (Forces de Defense Nationales, FDN): Army (includes Naval Detachment and Air Wing), National Gendarmerie (being disbanded) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
16 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 16-49: 1,676,855
females age 16-49: 1,656,366 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 16-49: 955,616
females age 16-49: 932,767 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 91,331
females age 16-49: 90,685 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$43.9 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.6% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Burundi Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Tutsi, Hutu, other conflicting ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces continue fighting in the Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda in an effort to gain control over populated and natural resource areas; government heads pledge to end conflict, but localized violence continues despite the presence of about 6,000 peacekeepers from the UN Operation in Burundi (ONUB) since 2004; although some 150,000 Burundian refugees have been repatriated, as of February 2005, Burundian refugees still reside in camps in western Tanzania as well as the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 48,424 (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
IDPs: 145,000 (armed conflict between government and rebels; most IDPs in northern and western Burundi) (2005)

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook