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Brunei

 
Flag of Brunei
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Coordinates:
04.50 N  114.67 E
 

 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Brunei Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in the developing world.
   Geography    Brunei Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
4 30 N, 114 40 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5,770 sq km
land: 5,270 sq km
water: 500 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Delaware
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
161 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, timber
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.08%
permanent crops: 0.87%
other: 97.05% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia
   People    Brunei Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
379,444 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 28.1% (male 54,411/female 52,134)
15-64 years: 68.8% (male 138,129/female 123,017)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 5,584/female 6,169) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 27.4 years
male: 28 years
female: 26.7 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.87% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.79 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.45 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.09 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 12.25 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.46 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 75.01 years
male: 72.57 years
female: 77.59 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.28 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Malay 67%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 12%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, indigenous beliefs and other 10%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Malay (official), English, Chinese
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 96.3%
female: 91.4% (2002)
   Government    Brunei Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional sultanate
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Bandar Seri Begawan
Administrative divisions:
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4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1984 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
none
Executive branch:
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chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; Sultan dissolved council on 1 September 2005 and appointed a new council with 29 members as of 2 September 2005
elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court - chief justice and judges are sworn in by monarch for three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London is final court of appeal for civil cases; Shariah courts deal with Islamic laws (2006)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Brunei Solidarity National Party (PPKB) [Haji Mohd HATTA bin Haji Zainal Abidin]; National Development Party (NDP) [YASSIN Affendi]; People's Awareness Party (PAKAR) [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad]
note: parties are small and have limited activity (2005)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, C, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato PUTEH
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Emil SKODON
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan, BS8811
mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507
telephone: [673] (2) 220-384
FAX: [673] (2) 225-293
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands
   Economy    Brunei Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
This small, well-to-do economy encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for nearly half of GDP and more than 90% of government revenues. Per capita GDP is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level and subsidizes rice and housing. Brunei's leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion, although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.842 billion (2003 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
NA
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.7% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$23,600 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 56.1%
services: 40.3% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
146,300
note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary residents make up about 40% of labor force (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2.9%
industry: 61.1%
services: 36% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.8% (2004)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.9% (2004)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $3.765 billion
expenditures: $4.815 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, eggs
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.3% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.906 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.726 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
200,800 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,770 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
192,700 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.255 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.4 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.73 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4.514 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, natural gas, refined products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 41.8%, South Korea 15.2%, US 10.8%, Australia 10.3%, Indonesia 6.5% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.641 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Singapore 32.6%, Malaysia 24.9%, Japan 6.9%, UK 6.9%, Thailand 4.5% (2005)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$NA
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$4.3 million (1995)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Bruneian dollar (BND)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Bruneian dollars per US dollar - 1.6644 (2005), 1.6902 (2004), 1.7422 (2003), 1.7906 (2002), 1.7917 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Brunei Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
90,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
137,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: service throughout the country is excellent; international service is good to East Asia, Europe, and the US
domestic: every service available
international: country code - 673; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore (2001)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1, FM 2 (transmitting on 18 different frequencies), shortwave 0
note: British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) station transmits two FM signals with English and Nepali service (2006)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
4; note - including two UHF stations broadcasting a subscription service (2006)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bn
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
27 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
56,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Brunei Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
3 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 665 km; oil 439 km (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,150 km
paved: 399 km
unpaved: 751 km (1999)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m) (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 465,937 GRT/413,393 DWT
by type: liquefied gas 8
foreign-owned: 8 (UK 8) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Lumut, Muara, Seria
   Military    Brunei Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (est.) (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 103,885
females age 18-49: 93,024 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 85,045
females age 18-49: 77,436 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 3,478
females age 18-49: 3,342 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$290.7 million (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.1% (2003 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Brunei Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
in 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international legal adjudication; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is in dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook