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Bulgaria

 
Flag of Bulgaria
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Coordinates:
43.00 N  25.00 E

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

Map of Bulgaria

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Bulgaria Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. Today, reforms and democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward eventual integration into the EU. The country joined NATO in 2004.
   Geography    Bulgaria Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
43 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 110,910 sq km
land: 110,550 sq km
water: 360 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,808 km
border countries: Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia 318 km, Turkey 240 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
354 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2,925 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 29.94%
permanent crops: 1.9%
other: 68.16% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
5,880 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes, landslides
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia
   People    Bulgaria Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7,385,367 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 13.9% (male 527,881/female 502,334)
15-64 years: 68.7% (male 2,496,054/female 2,579,680)
65 years and over: 17.3% (male 527,027/female 752,391) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 40.8 years
male: 38.7 years
female: 42.9 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.86% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.65 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.27 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-4.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 19.85 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.52 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.3 years
male: 68.68 years
female: 76.13 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.38 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
346 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100 (2001 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Bulgarian 83.9%, Turk 9.4%, Roma 4.7%, other 2% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian) (2001 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Bulgarian Orthodox 82.6%, Muslim 12.2%, other Christian 1.2%, other 4% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.6%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.2% (2003 est.)
   Government    Bulgaria Top of Page
Country name:
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conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form: Bulgaria
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Sofia
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya, Sofiya-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Georgi PURVANOV (since 22 January 2002); Vice President Angel MARIN (since 22 January 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Sergei STANISHEV (since 16 August 2005); Deputy Prime Ministers Ivaylo KALFIN, Daniel VULCHEV, and Emel ETEM (since 16 August 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 and 18 November 2001 (next to be held in 2006); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president and elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
election results: Georgi PURVANOV elected president; percent of vote - Georgi PURVANOV 54.13%, Petar STOYANOV 45.87%; Sergei STANISHEV elected prime minister, result of legislative vote - 168 to 67
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 25 June 2005 (next to be held June 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - CfB 31.1%, NMS2 19.9%, MRF 12.7%, ATAKA 8.2%, UDF 7.7%, DSB 6.5%, BPU 5.2%; seats by party - CfB 83, NMS2 53, MRF 33, UDF 20, ATAKA 17, DSB 17, BPU 13, independents 4
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Administrative Court; Supreme Court of Cassation; Constitutional Court (12 justices appointed or elected for nine-year terms); Supreme Judicial Council (consists of the chairmen of the two Supreme Courts, the Chief Prosecutor, and 22 other members; responsible for appointing the justices, prosecutors, and investigating magistrates in the justice system; members of the Supreme Judicial Council elected for five-year terms, 11 elected by the National Assembly and 11 by bodies of the judiciary)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
ATAKA (Attack Coalition) (coalition of parties headed by the Attack National Union); Attack National Union [Volen Siderov]; Bulgarian Agrarian National Union-People's Union or BANU [Anastasia MOZER]; Bulgarian People's Union or BPU (coalition of UFD, IMRO, and BANU); Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]; Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB (coalition of parties dominated by BSP) [Sergei STANISHEV]; Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]; Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]; National Movement for Simeon II or NMS2 [Simeon SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA]; New Time [Emil KOSHLUKOV]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Petar STOYANOV]; Union of Free Democrats or UFD [Stefan SOFIYANSKI]; United Democratic Forces or UtDF (a coalition of center-right parties dominated by UDF)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate affiliate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Elena B. POPTODOROVA
chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-0174
FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John Ross BEYRLE
embassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1407
mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740
telephone: [359] (2) 937-5100
FAX: [359] (2) 937-5230
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; note - the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removed
   Economy    Bulgaria Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Bulgaria, a former communist country striving to enter the European Union, has experienced macroeconomic stability and strong growth since a major economic downturn in 1996 led to the fall of the then socialist government. As a result, the government became committed to economic reform and responsible fiscal planning. Minerals, including coal, copper, and zinc, play an important role in industry. In 1997, macroeconomic stability was reinforced by the imposition of a fixed exchange rate of the lev against the German D-mark and the negotiation of an IMF standby agreement. Low inflation and steady progress on structural reforms improved the business environment; Bulgaria has averaged 4% growth since 2000 and has begun to attract significant amounts of foreign direct investment. Corruption in the public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of organized crime remain the largest challenges for Bulgaria.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$71.54 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$25.79 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9,600 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 9.3%
industry: 30.4%
services: 60.3% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.34 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 11%
industry: 32.7%
services: 56.3% (3rd qtr. 2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11.5% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
13.4% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4.5%
highest 10%: 22.8% (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
31.9 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $11.18 billion
expenditures: $10.9 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
31.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.3% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38.07 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
31.75 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
5.449 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.8 billion kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,908 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
107,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.1 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.401 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.8 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.947 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$3.133 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11.67 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 13%, Germany 11%, Turkey 10.1%, Greece 6.1%, Belgium 5.6%, France 4.2%, US 4.1% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$15.9 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 14.7%, Russia 9.9%, Italy 9.9%, Turkey 6.8%, Greece 6.4%, France 4% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8.695 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$15.32 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$300 million (2000 est.)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
lev (BGL)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
leva per US dollar - 1.5741 (2005), 1.5751 (2004), 1.7327 (2003), 2.077 (2002), 2.1847 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Bulgaria Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,726,800 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,729,700 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: extensive but antiquated
domestic: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential; telephone service is available in most villages; a fairly modern digital cable trunk line now connects switching centers in most of the regions, the others are connected by digital microwave radio relay
international: country code - 359; direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 31, FM 63, shortwave 2 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
39 (plus 1,242 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
95,539 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
630,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Bulgaria Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
213 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 128
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 92 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 85
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 72 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 2,425 km; oil 339 km; refined products 156 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4,294 km
standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 102,016 km
paved: 93,855 km (including 328 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,161 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
470 km (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 73 ships (1000 GRT or over) 862,164 GRT/1,276,562 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 15, chemical tanker 4, container 6, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 4
foreign-owned: 1 (Germany 1)
registered in other countries: 40 (Cambodia 1, Comoros 1, Malta 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16, Slovakia 7, unknown 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Burgas, Varna
   Military    Bulgaria Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 9 months; as of May 2006, 67% of the Bulgarian Army comprised of professional soldiers; conscription into the Army to end as of 1 January 2008; Air and Air Defense Forces and Naval Forces will become fully professional by end of 2006 (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,661,211
females age 18-49: 1,660,982 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,302,037
females age 18-49: 1,365,126 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 51,023
females age 18-49: 48,651 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$356 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.6% (2003)
   Transnational Issues    Bulgaria Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook