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Brazil

 
Flag of Brazil
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Coordinates:
10.00 S  55.00 W

 
 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Brazil Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became an independent nation in 1822 and a republic in 1889. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil overcame more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country when in 1985 the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.
   Geography    Brazil Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
10 00 S, 55 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8,511,965 sq km
land: 8,456,510 sq km
water: 55,455 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 14,691 km
border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
7,491 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 6.93%
permanent crops: 0.89%
other: 92.18% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
29,200 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
   People    Brazil Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
188,078,227
note: Brazil conducted a census in August 2000, which reported a population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 25.8% (male 24,687,656/female 23,742,998)
15-64 years: 68.1% (male 63,548,331/female 64,617,539)
65 years and over: 6.1% (male 4,712,675/female 6,769,028) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 28.2 years
male: 27.5 years
female: 29 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.04% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.56 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.17 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 28.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 71.97 years
male: 68.02 years
female: 76.12 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.91 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.7% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
660,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% (2000 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic (nominal) 73.6%, Protestant 15.4%, Spiritualist 1.3%, Bantu/voodoo 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4% (2000 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.4%
male: 86.1%
female: 86.6% (2003 est.)
   Government    Brazil Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federative republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Brasilia
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
5 October 1988
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age; note - military conscripts do not vote
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held 6 October 2002 (next to be held 1 October 2006, with a runoff on 29 October 2006 if necessary); runoff election held 27 October 2002
election results: in runoff election 27 October 2002, Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) elected with 61.3% of the vote; Jose SERRA (PSDB) 38.7%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members from each state and federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected after a four-year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held 6 October 2002 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held October 2006 for one-third of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 6 October 2002 (next to be held October 2006)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PMDB 19, PFL 19, PT 14, PSDB 11, PDT 5, PSB 4, PL 3, PTB 3, PPS 1, PSD 1, PP 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PT 91, PFL 84, PMDB 74, PSDB 71, PP 49, PL 26, PTB 26, PSB 22, PDT 21, PPS 15, PCdoB 12, PRONA 6, PV 5, other 11; note - many congressmen have changed party affiliation since the most recent election
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed for life by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life); note - though appointed "for life," judges, like all federal employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Federal Deputy Michel TEMER]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Flavio de CASTRO MARTINEZ]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Tasso JEREISSATI]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Federal Deputy Eduardo Henrique Accioly CAMPOS]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Luis Marques MENDES]; Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz de Franca PENNA]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Senator Jorge BORNHAUSEN]; Liberal Party or PL [Federal Deputy Valdemar COSTA Neto]; National Order Reconstruction Party or PRONA [Federal Deputy Dr. Eneas Ferreira CARNEIRO]; Partido Municipalista Renovador or PMR [Natal Wellington Rodrigues FURUCHO]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Federal Deputy Roberto FREIRE]; Progressive Party or PP [Federal Deputy Pedro CORREA]; Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge ABDALA NOSSEIS]; Worker's Party or PT [Ricardo Jose Ribeiro BERZOINI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Landless Worker's Movement; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
AfDB, BIS, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto ABDENUR
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John DANILOVICH
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulate(s): Recife
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)
   Economy    Brazil Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. From 2001-03 real wages fell and Brazil's economy grew, on average only 2.2% per year, as the country absorbed a series of domestic and international economic shocks. That Brazil absorbed these shocks without financial collapse is a tribute to the resiliency of the Brazilian economy and the economic program put in place by former President CARDOSO and strengthened by President LULA DA SILVA. In 2004, Brazil enjoyed more robust growth that yielded increases in employment and real wages. The three pillars of the economic program are a floating exchange rate, an inflation-targeting regime, and tight fiscal policy, all reinforced by a series of IMF programs. The currency depreciated sharply in 2001 and 2002, which contributed to a dramatic current account adjustment; in 2003 to 2005, Brazil ran record trade surpluses and recorded its first current account surpluses since 1992. Productivity gains - particularly in agriculture - also contributed to the surge in exports, and Brazil in 2005 surpassed the previous year's record export level. While economic management has been good, there remain important economic vulnerabilities. The most significant are debt-related: the government's largely domestic debt increased steadily from 1994 to 2003 - straining government finances - before falling as a percentage of GDP in 2005, while Brazil's foreign debt (a mix of private and public debt) is large in relation to Brazil's small (but growing) export base. Another challenge is maintaining economic growth over a period of time to generate employment and make the government debt burden more manageable.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.556 trillion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$619.7 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.4% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$8,400 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 8.4%
industry: 40%
services: 51.6% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
90.41 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 20%
industry: 14%
services: 66% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.8% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
22% (1998 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 0.7%
highest 10%: 31.27% (2002)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
59.7 (2004)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.9% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $140.6 billion
expenditures: $172.4 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2004)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
51.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.4% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
387.5 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
359.6 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
6 million kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
37.4 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.01 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.61 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.12 billion bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.79 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.74 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.947 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
240 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$14.19 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$115.1 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 19.8%, China 7.5%, Argentina 7.3%, Germany 5.2%, Netherlands 4.3% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$78.02 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 19.6%, Germany 8.6%, Argentina 8.5%, China 6.2%, Nigeria 5.6% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$53.8 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$188 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$30 billion (2002)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
real (BRL)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
reals per US dollar - 2.4344 (2005), 2.9251 (2004), 3.0771 (2003), 2.9208 (2002), 2.3577 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Brazil Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
42,382,200 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
65.605 million (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: good working system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
international: country code - 55; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM stations) (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
138 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.br
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,392,693 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25.9 million (2005)
   Transportation    Brazil Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4,223 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 709
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 24
1,524 to 2,437 m: 162
914 to 1,523 m: 463
under 914 m: 52 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,514
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 79
914 to 1,523 m: 1,609
under 914 m: 1,824 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
417 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
condensate/gas 244 km; gas 10,739 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km; oil 5,212 km; refined products 4,755 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 29,412 km (1,567 km electrified)
broad gauge: 4,907 km 1.600-m gauge (908 km electrified)
standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,915 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)
dual gauge: 396 km 1.000 m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km electrified) (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,724,929 km
paved: 94,871 km
unpaved: 1,630,058 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 140 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,253,902 GRT/3,473,166 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 23, cargo 23, chemical tanker 8, container 8, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 46, roll on/roll off 8
foreign-owned: 17 (Chile 1, Germany 7, Norway 2, Spain 6, UK 1)
registered in other countries: 7 (Ghana 1, Liberia 4, Panama 2) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Gebig, Itaqui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, San Sebasttiao, Santos, Sepetiba Terminal, Tubarao, Vitoria
   Military    Brazil Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil (MB), includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
21-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - nine to 12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 19-49: 45,586,036
females age 19-49: 45,728,704 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 19-49: 33,119,098
females age 19-49: 38,079,722 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,785,930
females age 19-49: 1,731,648 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$9.94 billion (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.3% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Brazil Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute with Uruguay over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina; in 2004 Brazil submitted its claims to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) to extend its maritime continental margin
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds earned in Brazil are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook