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Bahrain

 
Flag of Bahrain
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Coordinates:
26.00 N  50.55 E

 

 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Bahrain Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. Sheikh HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa, who came to power in 1999, has pushed economic and political reforms and has worked to improve relations with the Shi'a community. In February 2001, Bahraini voters approved a referendum on the National Action Charter - the centerpiece of Sheikh HAMAD's political liberalization program. In February 2002, Sheikh HAMAD pronounced Bahrain a constitutional monarchy and changed his status from amir to king. In October 2002, Bahrainis elected members of the lower house of Bahrain's reconstituted bicameral legislature, the National Assembly.
   Geography    Bahrain Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
26 00 N, 50 33 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Middle East
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 665 sq km
land: 665 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
161 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.82%
permanent crops: 5.63%
other: 91.55% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
40 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; dust storms
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources, groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
   People    Bahrain Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
698,585
note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 27.4% (male 96,567/female 94,650)
15-64 years: 69.1% (male 280,272/female 202,451)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 12,753/female 11,892) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 29.4 years
male: 32.4 years
female: 25.8 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.45% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17.8 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.14 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.38 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.07 male(s)/female
total population: 1.26 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 16.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 19.65 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 74.45 years
male: 71.97 years
female: 77 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.6 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 600 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Bahraini(s)
adjective: Bahraini
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Bahraini 62.4%, non-Bahraini 37.6% (2001 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim (Shi'a and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89.1%
male: 91.9%
female: 85% (2003 est.)
   Government    Bahrain Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
conventional short form: Bahrain
local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
local short form: Al Bahrayn
former: Dilmun
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional hereditary monarchy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Manama
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
12 municipalities (manatiq, singular - mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Juzur Hawar, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Sitrah
note: all municipalities administered from Manama
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
15 August 1971 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 is the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 is the date of independence from British protection
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
new constitution 14 February 2002
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Islamic law and English common law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)
head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman al-Khalifa (since 1971)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of Shura Council (40 members appointed by the King) and House of Deputies (40 members directly elected to serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Deputies - last held 31 October 2002 (next election to be held in September 2006)
election results: House of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Sunni Islamists 12, Shia grouping 7, other groupings and independents 21
note: first elections since 7 December 1973; unicameral National Assembly dissolved 26 August 1975; National Action Charter created bicameral legislature on 23 December 2000; approved by referendum 14 February 2001; first legislative session of Parliament held on 25 December 2002
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
High Civil Appeals Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized per a July 2005 law
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Shi'a activists fomented unrest sporadically in 1994-97 and have recently engaged in protests and marches, demanding that more power be vested in the elected Council of Representatives and that the government do more to decrease unemployment; several small, clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Nasir bin Muhammad al-BALUSHI
chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111
FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador William T. MONROE
embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama
mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
telephone: [973] 1724-2700
FAX: [973] 1727-0547 (consular)
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam
   Economy    Bahrain Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Petroleum production and refining account for about 60% of Bahrain's export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from refining imported crude. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems. In 2005 Bahrain and the US ratified a Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$15.83 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$11.01 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$23,000 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 0.5%
industry: 38.7%
services: 60.8% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
380,000
note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 1%
industry: 79%
services: 20% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.7% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
19.5% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $4.662 billion
expenditures: $3.447 billion; including capital expenditures of $700 million (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
33.5% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, offshore banking, ship repairing, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.345 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.83 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
188,300 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
26,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
124 million bbl (2005 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.65 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.65 billion cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2002 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2002 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
92.03 billion cu m (2005)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.531 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11.17 billion (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Saudi Arabia 3%, US 2.5%, UAE 2.2% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$7.83 billion (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Saudi Arabia 34.8%, Japan 6.9%, Germany 6.6%, US 5.6%, UK 4.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.432 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$6.814 billion (2005 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$150 million; note - $50 million annually since 1992 from the UAE and Kuwait (2002)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Bahraini dinars per US dollar - 0.376 (2005), 0.376 (2004), 0.376 (2003), 0.376 (2002), 0.376 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Bahrain Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
191,600 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
649,800 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern system
domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones
international: country code - 973; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 1 (1997)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
4 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.bh
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,952 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
152,700 (2005)
   Transportation    Bahrain Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 20 km; oil 53 km (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 3,498 km
paved: 2,768 km
unpaved: 730 km (2003)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 235,449 GRT/339,728 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 1, container 2, petroleum tanker 1
foreign-owned: 4 (India 1, Kuwait 3) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Mina' Salman, Sitrah
   Military    Bahrain Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF): Ground Force (includes Air Defense), Navy, Air Force, National Guard
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 202,126
females age 18-49: 151,734 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 161,372
females age 18-49: 125,488 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 6,013
females age 18-49: 5,852 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$627.7 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.9% (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Bahrain Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook