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Austria

 
Flag of Austria
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Coordinates:
47.33 N  13.33 E

 

 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Austria Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. Following the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995, some Austrians have called into question this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
   Geography    Austria Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 20 N, 13 20 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 83,870 sq km
land: 82,444 sq km
water: 1,426 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,562 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 16.59%
permanent crops: 0.85%
other: 82.56% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
40 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
   People    Austria Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8,192,880 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 15.4% (male 645,337/female 614,602)
15-64 years: 67.5% (male 2,782,712/female 2,749,620)
65 years and over: 17.1% (male 567,752/female 832,857) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 40.9 years
male: 39.8 years
female: 42 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.09% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.76 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.65 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 79.07 years
male: 76.17 years
female: 82.11 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.36 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia), Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: NA
female: NA
   Government    Austria Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Vienna
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 July 2004)
head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Hubert GORBACH (since 21 October 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential election last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held April 2010); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER (OeVP) 47.6%
note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least 3 representatives; members serve a five- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 42.3%, SPOe 36.5%, FPOe 10.0%, Greens 9.5%; seats by party - OeVP 79, SPOe 69, FPOe 18, Greens 17; seating as of May 2005 after split within the Freedom Party: OeVP 79, SPOe 69, Greens 17, BZOe 11, FPOe 7
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Joerg HAIDER]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT (observer), AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Susan R. McCAW
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 31339
FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
   Economy    Austria Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. The Austrian economy also benefits greatly from strong commercial relations, especially in the banking and insurance sectors, with central, eastern, and southeastern Europe. The economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the new EU economies. The current government has successfully pursued a comprehensive economic reform program, aimed at streamlining government, creating a more competitive business environment, further strengthening Austria's attractiveness as an investment location, pursuing a balanced budget, and implementing effective pension reforms. Weak domestic consumption and slow growth in Europe have held the economy to growth rates of 0.4% in 2002, 1.4% in 2003, 2.4% in 2004, and 1.8% in 2005. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, particularly the new EU members, Austria will need to continue restructuring, emphasizing knowledge-based sectors of the economy, and encouraging greater labor flexibility and greater labor participation by its aging population.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$267.6 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$293.4 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.9% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$32,700 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 1.8%
industry: 30.4%
services: 67.8% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.49 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3%
industry: 27%
services: 70% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.2% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
5.9% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 22.5% (2004)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
31 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.3% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $148.6 billion
expenditures: $154.5 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
65.1% of GDP (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.7% (2005 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
63.69 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
64.78 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
13.53 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
16.63 billion kWh (2004)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
17,810 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
249,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30,140 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
152,600 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
84.3 million bbl (2004)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.96 billion cu m (2004)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
9.01 billion cu m (2004)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2004)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.05 billion cu m (2004)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
23.2 billion cu m (2004)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.467 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$122.5 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 31.3%, Italy 8.7%, US 5.9%, Switzerland 5.2%, France 4.2%, UK 4% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$118.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 46.2%, Italy 6.7%, Switzerland 4.3% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11.83 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$510.6 billion (30 June 2005 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $681 million (2004)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Austria Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.791 million (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.99 million (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available
international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2005)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.at
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1,812,776 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
4.65 million (2005)
   Transportation    Austria Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
55 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 14 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 27 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 2,722 km; oil 663 km; refined products 149 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 6,021 km (3,552 km electrified)
standard gauge: 5,565 km 1.435-m gauge (3,430 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 34 km 1.000-m gauge (28 km electrified); 422 km 0.760-m gauge (94 km electrified) (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 133,718 km
paved: 133,718 km (including 1,677 km of expressways) (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
358 km (2003)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 34,072 GRT/44,437 DWT
by type: cargo 6, container 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Netherlands 2)
registered in other countries: 15 (Liberia 14, Malta 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna
   Military    Austria Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for voluntary service; from 2007, at the earliest, compulsory military service obligation will be reduced from eight months to six (2005)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,914,800
females age 18-49: 1,870,134 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 1,550,441
females age 18-49: 1,515,365 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 48,967
females age 18-49: 46,633 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.497 billion (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.9% (2004)
   Transnational Issues    Austria Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Austrian anti-nuclear activists have revived blockades of the Czech-Austrian border to protest operation of the Temelin nuclear power plant in the Czech Republic
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook