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Albania

 
Flag of Albania
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Coordinates:
41.00 N  20.00 E

 

 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Albania Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997. In the 2005 general elections, the Democratic Party and its allies won a decisive victory on pledges of reducing crime and corruption, promoting economic growth, and decreasing the size of government. The election, and particularly the orderly transition of power, was considered an important step forward. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure. Albania has played a largely helpful role in managing inter-ethnic tensions in southeastern Europe, and is continuing to work toward joining NATO and the EU. Albania, with troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, has been a strong supporter of the global war on terrorism.
   Geography    Albania Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
41 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Europe
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 28,748 sq km
land: 27,398 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 720 km
border countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Montenegro 172 km, Serbia 115 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
362 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 20.1%
permanent crops: 4.21%
other: 75.69% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
3,530 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)
   People    Albania Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,581,655 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 24.8% (male 464,954/female 423,003)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 1,214,942/female 1,158,562)
65 years and over: 8.9% (male 148,028/female 172,166) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 28.9 years
male: 28.3 years
female: 29.5 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.52% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
15.11 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.22 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-4.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 20.75 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 77.43 years
male: 74.78 years
female: 80.34 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.03 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb, Macedonian, Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 9 and over can read and write
total population: 86.5%
male: 93.3%
female: 79.5% (2003 est.)
   Government    Albania Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Albania
conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form: Shqiperia
former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
emerging democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Tirana
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Qarku i Beratit, Qarku i Dibres, Qarku i Durresit, Qarku i Elbasanit, Qarku i Fierit, Qarku i Gjirokastres, Qarku i Korces, Qarku i Kukesit, Qarku i Lezhes, Qarku i Shkodres, Qarku i Tiranes, Qarku i Vlores
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 28 November (1912)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court for its citizens
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President of the Republic Alfred MOISIU (since 24 July 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 September 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by parliament
elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 24 June 2002 (next to be held June 2007); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Alfred MOISIU elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 116, for 97, against 19
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100 are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for four-year terms)
elections: last held 3 July 2005 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PD 56, PS 42, PR 11, PSD 7, LSI 5, other 19
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term), and multiple appeals and district courts
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nikolle LESI]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIU]; Liberal Union Party or PBL [Arjan STAROVA]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or BNK [Adriatik ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Renewed Democratic Party or PDRN [Dashamir SHEHI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party or PDS [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNj [Vangjel DULE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Citizens Advocacy Office [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement [Erion VELIAJ]; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, OIC, OIF (associate member), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Aleksander SALLABANDA
chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Marcie B. RIES
embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana
mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510
telephone: [355] (4) 247285
FAX: [355] (4) 374957 and [355] (4) 232222
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red with a black two-headed eagle in the center
   Economy    Albania Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Lagging behind its Balkan neighbors, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to spur economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by annual remittances from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Greece and Italy; this helps offset the towering trade deficit. Agriculture, which accounts for about one-quarter of GDP, is held back because of frequent drought and the need to modernize equipment, to clarify property rights, and to consolidate small plots of land. Energy shortages and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure contribute to Albania's poor business environment, which make it difficult to attract and sustain foreign investment. The planned construction of a new thermal power plant near Vlore and improved transmission and distribution facilities will help relieve the energy shortages. Also, the government is moving slowly to improve the poor national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth. On the positive side: growth was strong in 2003-05 and inflation is not a problem.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$18.97 billion
note: Albania has a large gray economy that may be as large as 50% of official GDP (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$8.657 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.5% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$4,900 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 23.2%
industry: 18.8%
services: 57.9% (2005 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.09 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers) (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 58%
industry: 19%
services: 23% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
14.3% official rate, but may exceed 30% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
25% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
28.2 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.4% (2005 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.96 billion
expenditures: $2.377 billion; including capital expenditures of $500 million (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.1% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.68 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6.76 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
200 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.08 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,600 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
25,200 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21,600 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
185.5 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30 million cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.832 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
-$416 million (2005 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$650.1 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 63.5%, France 9.4%, US 5.6%, Germany 4.3% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$2.473 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 32.7%, Greece 18.3%, Turkey 8.6%, Germany 6.1% (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.461 billion (2005 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.55 billion (2004)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA: $366 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2003 est.)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
lek (ALL)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
leke per US dollar - 102.649 (2005), 102.78 (2004), 121.863 (2003), 140.155 (2002), 143.485 (2001)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Albania Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
255,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.1 million (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines, the density of main lines remains the lowest in Europe with roughly eight lines per 100 people; however, cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective
domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albania's Balkan neighbors
international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines; adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by fiber optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2003)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 13, FM 46 (3 national, 62 local), shortwave 1 (2005)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
65 (3 national, 62 local); note - 2 cable networks (2005)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.al
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
749 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
75,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Albania Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 4 (2005)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2005)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing
gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2004)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 447 km
standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2004)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 18,000 km
paved: 7,020 km
unpaved: 10,980 km (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
43 km (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 23 ships (1000 GRT or over) 50,402 GRT/75,798 DWT
by type: cargo 22, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 1 (Georgia 1) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore
   Military    Albania Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
General Staff Headquarters, Land Forces Command (Army), Naval Forces Command, Air Defense Command, Logistics Command, Training and Doctrine Command
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 19-49: 809,524
females age 19-49: 784,199 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 19-49: 668,526
females age 19-49: 648,334 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 37,407
females age 19-49: 34,587 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$56.5 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.49% (FY02)
   Transnational Issues    Albania Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in neighboring countries advocate for a "greater Albania," but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals; thousands of unemployed Albanians emigrate annually to nearby Italy and other developed countries
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and growing cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and expanding in Europe; vulnerable to money laundering associated with regional trafficking in narcotics, arms, contraband, and illegal aliens

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook