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Antigua and Barbuda

 
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Coordinates:
17.05 N  61.80 W

 

 
Introduction  Geography  People  Government  Economy
 
Communications  Transportation  Military  Transnational Issues

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Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order
   Introduction    Antigua and Barbuda Top of Page
Background:
Definition Field Listing
The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak and Carib Indians populated the islands when Columbus landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
   Geography    Antigua and Barbuda Top of Page
Location:
Definition Field Listing
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
17 03 N, 61 48 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Central America and the Caribbean
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
0 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing
153 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing
mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 18.18%
permanent crops: 4.55%
other: 77.27% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
NA
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor
   People    Antigua and Barbuda Top of Page
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
69,108 (July 2006 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 27.6% (male 9,716/female 9,375)
15-64 years: 68.5% (male 23,801/female 23,524)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 1,020/female 1,672) (2006 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 30 years
male: 29.5 years
female: 30.5 years (2006 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.55% (2006 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
16.93 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.37 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-6.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 18.86 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.71 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 72.16 years
male: 69.78 years
female: 74.66 years (2006 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.24 children born/woman (2006 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian
Religions:
Definition Field Listing
Christian (predominantly Anglican with other Protestant, and some Roman Catholic)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing
English (official), local dialects
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 85.8%
male: NA%
female: NA% (2003 est.)
   Government    Antigua and Barbuda Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament
Capital:
Definition Field Listing
Saint John's (Antigua)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence:
Definition Field Listing
1 November 1981 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing
1 November 1981
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir James B. CARLISLE (since 10 June 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 23 March 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP 4, UPP 13
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; National Democratic Congress [Tillman THOMAS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band
   Economy    Antigua and Barbuda Top of Page
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$750 million (2002 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
NA
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$11,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 19.2%
services: 76.8% (2002)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
30,000
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
11% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0.4% (2000 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $123.7 million
expenditures: $145.9 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Industries:
Definition Field Listing
tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6% (1997 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
100 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
93 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2003)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 bbl/day (2003)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,600 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA bbl/day
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2003 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$214 million (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Spain 29.9%, Germany 18.2%, Poland 13.9%, Italy 6.4%, Singapore 5.1%, UK 4.4% (2005)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$735 million (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 20.3%, China 15.7%, Singapore 12.2%, Germany 10.9%, Spain 6.3% (2005)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$231 million (1999)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$2.3 million (1995)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003), 2.7 (2002), 2.7 (2001)
note: fixed rate since 1976
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Antigua and Barbuda Top of Page
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
38,000 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
54,000 (2004)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: country code - 1-268; 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
2 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
.ag
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2,143 (2005)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
20,000 (2005)
   Transportation    Antigua and Barbuda Top of Page
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3 (2005)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2005)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,165 km
paved: 384 km
unpaved: 781 km (2002)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 981 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,040,579 GRT/9,274,996 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo 614, chemical tanker 7, container 283, liquefied gas 9, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 8, roll on/roll off 19, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 953 (Bangladesh 4, Belgium 3, Colombia 2, Denmark 11, Estonia 12, Germany 853, Iceland 7, Isle of Man 1, Latvia 5, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 1, Netherlands 10, Norway 10, Russia 6, Slovenia 6, Switzerland 4, Turkey 5, UK 5, US 7) (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Saint John's
   Military    Antigua and Barbuda Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force: Infantry, Coast Guard (2004)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (est.); no conscript military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 18,952
females age 18-49: 18,360 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 14,859
females age 18-49: 14,947 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 507
females age 18-49: 494 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
NA
   Transnational Issues    Antigua and Barbuda Top of Page
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
none
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center

This page was last updated on 20 July, 2006


Source: CIA Factbook